Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument) Version 1.3. Part 4: Recalculated Formula (OpenFormula) Format

Committee Specification Draft 02 /
Public Review Draft 02

04 November 2019

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https://docs.oasis-open.org/office/OpenDocument/v1.3/OpenDocument-v1.3-part4-formula.pdf

Technical Committee:

OASIS Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument) TC

Chairs:

Jos van den Oever (jos.vanden.oever@logius.nl), Logius

Patrick Durusau (patrick@durusau.net), Individual

Editor:

Patrick Durusau (patrick@durusau.net), Individual

Additional artifacts:

This prose specification is one component of a Work Product which includes:

Related work:

This specification replaces or supersedes:

Abstract:

This document is Part 4 of the Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument) Version 1.3 specification.

Status:

This document was last revised or approved by the OASIS Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument) TC on the above date. The level of approval is also listed above. Check the “Latest stage” location noted above for possible later revisions of this document. Any other numbered Versions and other technical work produced by the Technical Committee (TC) are listed at https://www.oasis-open.org/committees/tc_home.php?wg_abbrev=office#technical.

TC members should send comments on this specification to the TC’s email list. Others should send comments to the TC’s public comment list, after subscribing to it by following the instructions at the “Send A Comment” button on the TC’s web page at https://www.oasis-open.org/committees/office/.

This specification is provided under the RF on Limited Terms Model of the OASIS IPR Policy, the mode chosen when the Technical Committee was established. For information on whether any patents have been disclosed that may be essential to implementing this specification, and any offers of patent licensing terms, please refer to the Intellectual Property Rights section of the TC’s web page (https://www.oasis-open.org/committees/office/ipr.php).

Note that any machine-readable content (Computer Language Definitions) declared Normative for this Work Product is provided in separate plain text files. In the event of a discrepancy between any such plain text file and display content in the Work Product's prose narrative document(s), the content in the separate plain text file prevails.

Citation format:

When referencing this specification the following citation format should be used:

[OpenDocument-v1.3-part4]

Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument) Version 1.3. Part 4: Recalculated Formula (OpenFormula) Format. Edited by Patrick Durusau. 04 November 2019. OASIS Committee Specification Draft 02 / Public Review Draft 02. https://docs.oasis-open.org/office/OpenDocument/v1.3/csprd02/part4-formula/OpenDocument-v1.3-csprd02-part4-formula.html. Latest stage: https://docs.oasis-open.org/office/OpenDocument/v1.3/OpenDocument-v1.3-part4-formula.html.

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Table of Contents

1 Introduction

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Terminology

1.3 Purpose

1.4 Normative References

1.5 Non-Normative References

2 Expressions and Evaluators

2.1 Introduction

2.2 OpenDocument Formula Expression

2.3 Evaluator Conformance

2.3.1 OpenDocument Formula Evaluator

2.3.2 OpenDocument Formula Small Group Evaluator

2.3.3 OpenDocument Formula Medium Group Evaluator

2.3.4 OpenDocument Formula Large Group Evaluator

2.4 Variances (Implementation-defined, Unspecified, and Behavioral Changes)

3 Formula Processing Model

3.1 General

3.2 Expression Evaluation

3.2.1 General

3.2.2 Expression Calculation

3.2.3 Operator and Function Evaluation

3.3 Non-Scalar Evaluation (aka 'Array expressions')

3.4 Host-Defined Behaviors

3.5 When recalculation occurs

3.6 Numerical Models

3.7 Basic Limits

4 Types

4.1 General

4.2 Text (String)

4.3 Number

4.3.1 General

4.3.2 Time

4.3.3 Date

4.3.4 DateTime

4.3.5 Percentage

4.3.6 Currency

4.3.7 Logical (Number)

4.4 Complex Number

4.5 Logical (Boolean)

4.6 Error

4.7 Empty Cell

4.8 Reference

4.9 ReferenceList

4.10 Array

4.11 Pseudotypes

4.11.1 General

4.11.2 Scalar

4.11.3 DateParam

4.11.4 TimeParam

4.11.5 Integer

4.11.6 TextOrNumber

4.11.7 Basis

4.11.8 Criterion

4.11.9 Database

4.11.10 Field

4.11.11 Criteria

4.11.12 Sequences (NumberSequence, NumberSequenceList, DateSequence, LogicalSequence, and ComplexSequence)

4.11.13 Any

5 Expression Syntax

5.1 General

5.2 Basic Expressions

5.3 Constant Numbers

5.4 Constant Strings

5.5 Operators

5.6 Functions and Function Parameters

5.7 Nonstandard Function Names

5.8 References

5.9 Reference List

5.10 Quoted Label

5.10.1 General

5.10.2 Lookup of Defined Labels

5.10.3 Automatic Lookup of Labels

5.10.4 Implicit Intersection

5.10.5 Automatic Range

5.10.6 Automatic Intersection

5.11 Named Expressions

5.12 Constant Errors

5.13 Inline Arrays

5.14 Whitespace

6 Standard Operators and Functions

6.1 General

6.2 Common Template for Functions and Operators

6.3 Implicit Conversion Operators

6.3.1 General

6.3.2 Conversion to Scalar

6.3.3 Implied intersection

6.3.4 Force to array context (ForceArray)

6.3.5 Conversion to Number

6.3.6 Conversion to Integer

6.3.7 Conversion to NumberSequence

6.3.8 Conversion to NumberSequenceList

6.3.9 Conversion to DateSequence

6.3.10 Conversion to Complex Number

6.3.11 Conversion to ComplexSequence

6.3.12 Conversion to Logical

6.3.13 Conversion to LogicalSequence

6.3.14 Conversion to Text

6.3.15 Conversion to DateParam

6.3.16 Conversion to TimeParam

6.4 Standard Operators

6.4.1 General

6.4.2 Infix Operator "+"

6.4.3 Infix Operator "-"

6.4.4 Infix Operator "*"

6.4.5 Infix Operator "/"

6.4.6 Infix Operator "^"

6.4.7 Infix Operator "="

6.4.8 Infix Operator "<>"

6.4.9 Infix Operator Ordered Comparison ("<", "<=", ">", ">=")

6.4.10 Infix Operator "&"

6.4.11 Infix Operator Reference Range (":")

6.4.12 Infix Operator Reference Intersection ("!")

6.4.13 Infix Operator Reference Concatenation ("~") (aka Union)

6.4.14 Postfix Operator "%"

6.4.15 Prefix Operator "+"

6.4.16 Prefix Operator "-"

6.5 Matrix Functions

6.5.1 General

6.5.2 MDETERM

6.5.3 MINVERSE

6.5.4 MMULT

6.5.5 MUNIT

6.5.6 TRANSPOSE

6.6 Bit operation functions

6.6.1 General

6.6.2 BITAND

6.6.3 BITLSHIFT

6.6.4 BITOR

6.6.5 BITRSHIFT

6.6.6 BITXOR

6.7 Byte-position text functions

6.7.1 General

6.7.2 FINDB

6.7.3 LEFTB

6.7.4 LENB

6.7.5 MIDB

6.7.6 REPLACEB

6.7.7 RIGHTB

6.7.8 SEARCHB

6.8 Complex Number Functions

6.8.1 General

6.8.2 COMPLEX

6.8.3 IMABS

6.8.4 IMAGINARY

6.8.5 IMARGUMENT

6.8.6 IMCONJUGATE

6.8.7 IMCOS

6.8.8 IMCOSH

6.8.9 IMCOT

6.8.10 IMCSC

6.8.11 IMCSCH

6.8.12 IMDIV

6.8.13 IMEXP

6.8.14 IMLN

6.8.15 IMLOG10

6.8.16 IMLOG2

6.8.17 IMPOWER

6.8.18 IMPRODUCT

6.8.19 IMREAL

6.8.20 IMSIN

6.8.21 IMSINH

6.8.22 IMSEC

6.8.23 IMSECH

6.8.24 IMSQRT

6.8.25 IMSUB

6.8.26 IMSUM

6.8.27 IMTAN

6.9 Database Functions

6.9.1 General

6.9.2 DAVERAGE

6.9.3 DCOUNT

6.9.4 DCOUNTA

6.9.5 DGET

6.9.6 DMAX

6.9.7 DMIN

6.9.8 DPRODUCT

6.9.9 DSTDEV

6.9.10 DSTDEVP

6.9.11 DSUM

6.9.12 DVAR

6.9.13 DVARP

6.10 Date and Time Functions

6.10.1 General

6.10.2 DATE

6.10.3 DATEDIF

6.10.4 DATEVALUE

6.10.5 DAY

6.10.6 DAYS

6.10.7 DAYS360

6.10.8 EDATE

6.10.9 EOMONTH

6.10.10 HOUR

6.10.11 ISOWEEKNUM

6.10.12 MINUTE

6.10.13 MONTH

6.10.14 NETWORKDAYS

6.10.15 NOW

6.10.16 SECOND

6.10.17 TIME

6.10.18 TIMEVALUE

6.10.19 TODAY

6.10.20 WEEKDAY

6.10.21 WEEKNUM

6.10.22 WORKDAY

6.10.23 YEAR

6.10.24 YEARFRAC

6.11 External Access Functions

6.11.1 General

6.11.2 DDE

6.11.3 HYPERLINK

6.12 Financial Functions

6.12.1 General

6.12.2 ACCRINT

6.12.3 ACCRINTM

6.12.4 AMORLINC

6.12.5 COUPDAYBS

6.12.6 COUPDAYS

6.12.7 COUPDAYSNC

6.12.8 COUPNCD

6.12.9 COUPNUM

6.12.10 COUPPCD

6.12.11 CUMIPMT

6.12.12 CUMPRINC

6.12.13 DB

6.12.14 DDB

6.12.15 DISC

6.12.16 DOLLARDE

6.12.17 DOLLARFR

6.12.18 DURATION

6.12.19 EFFECT

6.12.20 FV

6.12.21 FVSCHEDULE

6.12.22 INTRATE

6.12.23 IPMT

6.12.24 IRR

6.12.25 ISPMT

6.12.26 MDURATION

6.12.27 MIRR

6.12.28 NOMINAL

6.12.29 NPER

6.12.30 NPV

6.12.31 ODDFPRICE

6.12.32 ODDFYIELD

6.12.33 ODDLPRICE

6.12.34 ODDLYIELD

6.12.35 PDURATION

6.12.36 PMT

6.12.37 PPMT

6.12.38 PRICE

6.12.39 PRICEDISC

6.12.40 PRICEMAT

6.12.41 PV

6.12.42 RATE

6.12.43 RECEIVED

6.12.44 RRI

6.12.45 SLN

6.12.46 SYD

6.12.47 TBILLEQ

6.12.48 TBILLPRICE

6.12.49 TBILLYIELD

6.12.50 VDB

6.12.51 XIRR

6.12.52 XNPV

6.12.53 YIELD

6.12.54 YIELDDISC

6.12.55 YIELDMAT

6.13 Information Functions

6.13.1 General

6.13.2 AREAS

6.13.3 CELL

6.13.4 COLUMN

6.13.5 COLUMNS

6.13.6 COUNT

6.13.7 COUNTA

6.13.8 COUNTBLANK

6.13.9 COUNTIF

6.13.10 COUNTIFS

6.13.11 ERROR.TYPE

6.13.12 FORMULA

6.13.13 INFO

6.13.14 ISBLANK

6.13.15 ISERR

6.13.16 ISERROR

6.13.17 ISEVEN

6.13.18 ISFORMULA

6.13.19 ISLOGICAL

6.13.20 ISNA

6.13.21 ISNONTEXT

6.13.22 ISNUMBER

6.13.23 ISODD

6.13.24 ISREF

6.13.25 ISTEXT

6.13.26 N

6.13.27 NA

6.13.28 NUMBERVALUE

6.13.29 ROW

6.13.30 ROWS

6.13.31 SHEET

6.13.32 SHEETS

6.13.33 TYPE

6.13.34 VALUE

6.14 Lookup Functions

6.14.1 General

6.14.2 ADDRESS

6.14.3 CHOOSE

6.14.4 GETPIVOTDATA

6.14.5 HLOOKUP

6.14.6 INDEX

6.14.7 INDIRECT

6.14.8 LOOKUP

6.14.9 MATCH

6.14.10 MULTIPLE.OPERATIONS

6.14.11 OFFSET

6.14.12 VLOOKUP

6.15 Logical Functions

6.15.1 General

6.15.2 AND

6.15.3 FALSE

6.15.4 IF

6.15.5 IFERROR

6.15.6 IFNA

6.15.7 NOT

6.15.8 OR

6.15.9 TRUE

6.15.10 XOR

6.16 Mathematical Functions

6.16.1 General

6.16.2 ABS

6.16.3 ACOS

6.16.4 ACOSH

6.16.5 ACOT

6.16.6 ACOTH

6.16.7 ASIN

6.16.8 ASINH

6.16.9 ATAN

6.16.10 ATAN2

6.16.11 ATANH

6.16.12 BESSELI

6.16.13 BESSELJ

6.16.14 BESSELK

6.16.15 BESSELY

6.16.16 COMBIN

6.16.17 COMBINA

6.16.18 CONVERT

6.16.19 COS

6.16.20 COSH

6.16.21 COT

6.16.22 COTH

6.16.23 CSC

6.16.24 CSCH

6.16.25 DEGREES

6.16.26 DELTA

6.16.27 ERF

6.16.28 ERFC

6.16.29 EUROCONVERT

6.16.30 EVEN

6.16.31 EXP

6.16.32 FACT

6.16.33 FACTDOUBLE

6.16.34 GAMMA

6.16.35 GAMMALN

6.16.36 GCD

6.16.37 GESTEP

6.16.38 LCM

6.16.39 LN

6.16.40 LOG

6.16.41 LOG10

6.16.42 MOD

6.16.43 MULTINOMIAL

6.16.44 ODD

6.16.45 PI

6.16.46 POWER

6.16.47 PRODUCT

6.16.48 QUOTIENT

6.16.49 RADIANS

6.16.50 RAND

6.16.51 RANDBETWEEN

6.16.52 SEC

6.16.53 SERIESSUM

6.16.54 SIGN

6.16.55 SIN

6.16.56 SINH

6.16.57 SECH

6.16.58 SQRT

6.16.59 SQRTPI

6.16.60 SUBTOTAL

6.16.61 SUM

6.16.62 SUMIF

6.16.63 SUMIFS

6.16.64 SUMPRODUCT

6.16.65 SUMSQ

6.16.66 SUMX2MY2

6.16.67 SUMX2PY2

6.16.68 SUMXMY2

6.16.69 TAN

6.16.70 TANH

6.17 Rounding Functions

6.17.1 CEILING

6.17.2 INT

6.17.3 FLOOR

6.17.4 MROUND

6.17.5 ROUND

6.17.6 ROUNDDOWN

6.17.7 ROUNDUP

6.17.8 TRUNC

6.18 Statistical Functions

6.18.1 General

6.18.2 AVEDEV

6.18.3 AVERAGE

6.18.4 AVERAGEA

6.18.5 AVERAGEIF

6.18.6 AVERAGEIFS

6.18.7 BETADIST

6.18.8 BETAINV

6.18.9 BINOM.DIST.RANGE

6.18.10 BINOMDIST

6.18.11 LEGACY.CHIDIST

6.18.12 CHISQDIST

6.18.13 LEGACY.CHIINV

6.18.14 CHISQINV

6.18.15 LEGACY.CHITEST

6.18.16 CONFIDENCE

6.18.17 CORREL

6.18.18 COVAR

6.18.19 CRITBINOM

6.18.20 DEVSQ

6.18.21 EXPONDIST

6.18.22 FDIST

6.18.23 LEGACY.FDIST

6.18.24 FINV

6.18.25 LEGACY.FINV

6.18.26 FISHER

6.18.27 FISHERINV

6.18.28 FORECAST

6.18.29 FREQUENCY

6.18.30 FTEST

6.18.31 GAMMADIST

6.18.32 GAMMAINV

6.18.33 GAUSS

6.18.34 GEOMEAN

6.18.35 GROWTH

6.18.36 HARMEAN

6.18.37 HYPGEOMDIST

6.18.38 INTERCEPT

6.18.39 KURT

6.18.40 LARGE

6.18.41 LINEST

6.18.42 LOGEST

6.18.43 LOGINV

6.18.44 LOGNORMDIST

6.18.45 MAX

6.18.46 MAXA

6.18.47 MEDIAN

6.18.48 MIN

6.18.49 MINA

6.18.50 MODE

6.18.51 NEGBINOMDIST

6.18.52 NORMDIST

6.18.53 NORMINV

6.18.54 LEGACY.NORMSDIST

6.18.55 LEGACY.NORMSINV

6.18.56 PEARSON

6.18.57 PERCENTILE

6.18.58 PERCENTRANK

6.18.59 PERMUT

6.18.60 PERMUTATIONA

6.18.61 PHI

6.18.62 POISSON

6.18.63 PROB

6.18.64 QUARTILE

6.18.65 RANK

6.18.66 RSQ

6.18.67 SKEW

6.18.68 SKEWP

6.18.69 SLOPE

6.18.70 SMALL

6.18.71 STANDARDIZE

6.18.72 STDEV

6.18.73 STDEVA

6.18.74 STDEVP

6.18.75 STDEVPA

6.18.76 STEYX

6.18.77 LEGACY.TDIST

6.18.78 TINV

6.18.79 TREND

6.18.80 TRIMMEAN

6.18.81 TTEST

6.18.82 VAR

6.18.83 VARA

6.18.84 VARP

6.18.85 VARPA

6.18.86 WEIBULL

6.18.87 ZTEST

6.19 Number Representation Conversion Functions

6.19.1 General

6.19.2 ARABIC

6.19.3 BASE

6.19.4 BIN2DEC

6.19.5 BIN2HEX

6.19.6 BIN2OCT

6.19.7 DEC2BIN

6.19.8 DEC2HEX

6.19.9 DEC2OCT

6.19.10 DECIMAL

6.19.11 HEX2BIN

6.19.12 HEX2DEC

6.19.13 HEX2OCT

6.19.14 OCT2BIN

6.19.15 OCT2DEC

6.19.16 OCT2HEX

6.19.17 ROMAN

6.20 Text Functions

6.20.1 General

6.20.2 ASC

6.20.3 CHAR

6.20.4 CLEAN

6.20.5 CODE

6.20.6 CONCATENATE

6.20.7 DOLLAR

6.20.8 EXACT

6.20.9 FIND

6.20.10 FIXED

6.20.11 JIS

6.20.12 LEFT

6.20.13 LEN

6.20.14 LOWER

6.20.15 MID

6.20.16 PROPER

6.20.17 REPLACE

6.20.18 REPT

6.20.19 RIGHT

6.20.20 SEARCH

6.20.21 SUBSTITUTE

6.20.22 T

6.20.23 TEXT

6.20.24 TRIM

6.20.25 UNICHAR

6.20.26 UNICODE

6.20.27 UPPER

7 Other Capabilities

7.1 General

7.2 Inline constant arrays

7.3 Inline non-constant arrays

7.4 Year 1583

8 Non-portable Features

8.1 General

8.2 Distinct Logical

Appendix A. Changes From Previous Specification Versions (Non Normative)

A.1. Changes from “Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument) v1.2”

1 Introduction

1.1 Introduction

This document is part of the Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument) Version 1.3 specification. It defines a formula language for OpenDocument documents, which is also called OpenFormula.

OpenFormula is a specification of an open format for exchanging recalculated formulas between office applications, in particular, formulas in spreadsheet documents. OpenFormula defines data types, syntax, and semantics for recalculated formulas, including predefined functions and operations.

OpenFormula is intended to be a supporting document to the Open Document Format for Office Applications (OpenDocument) format, particularly for defining its attributes table:formula and text:formula. It can also be used in other circumstances where a simple, easy-to-read infix text notation is desired for exchanging recalculated formulas.

Note: Using OpenFormula allows document creators to change the office application they use, exchange formulas with others (who may use a different application), and access formulas far in the future, with confidence that the recalculated formulas in their documents will produce equivalent results if given equivalent inputs.

1.2 Terminology

All text is normative unless otherwise labeled.

Within the normative text of this specification, the terms "shall", "shall not", "should", "should not", "may" and “need not” are to be interpreted as described in Annex H of [ISO/IEC Directives].

1.3 Purpose

OpenFormula defines:

  1. 1.data types 

  2. 2.syntax 

  3. 3.semantics 

for recalculated formulas. 3.5

OpenFormula also defines functions.

OpenFormula does not define:

  1. 1.a user interface 

  2. 2.a general notation for mathematical expressions 

1.4 Normative References

[CharModel] Martin J. Dürst, et. al., Character Model for the World Wide Web 1.0: Fundamentals, http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/REC-charmod-20050215/, W3C, 2005.

[ISO/IEC Directives] ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2 (Fifth Edition) Rules for the structure and drafting of International Standards, International Organization for Standardization and International Electrotechnical Commission, 2004.

[ISO4217] ISO 4217:2008 Codes for the representation of currencies and funds, International Organization for Standardization and International Electrotechnical Commission, 2008.

[ISO8601] ISO 8601:2004 Data elements and interchange formats -- Information interchange -- Representation of dates and times, International Organization for Standardization and International Electrotechnical Commission, 2004.

[RFC3986] T. Berners-Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter, Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt, IETF, 2005.

[RFC3987] M. Duerst, M. Suignard, Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs), http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3987.txt, IETF, 2005.

[UNICODE] The Unicode Consortium. The Unicode Standard, Version 5.2.0, defined by: The Unicode Standard, Version 5.2 (Mountain View, CA, The Unicode Consortium, 2009. ISBN 978-1-936213-00-9). (http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode5.2.0/).

[UTR15] Mark Davis, Martin Dürst, Unicode Normalization Forms, Unicode Technical Report #15, http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr15/tr15-25.html, 2005.

[XML1.0] Tim Bray, Jean Paoli, C. M. Sperberg-McQueen, Eve Maler, François Yergeau , Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fourth Edition), http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml-20060816/, W3C, 2006.

1.5 Non-Normative References

[JISX0201] The Unicode Consortium., JIS X 0201 (1976) to Unicode 1.1 Table, 1994, http://www.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS/OBSOLETE/EASTASIA/JIS/JIS0201.TXT.

[JISX0208] The Unicode Consortium., JIS X 0208 (1990) to Unicode, 1994,  http://www.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS/OBSOLETE/EASTASIA/JIS/JIS0208.TXT.

[UAX11] Asmus Freytag, East Asian Width, Unicode Standard Annex #11, http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr11/tr11-19.html, 2009.

2 Expressions and Evaluators

2.1 Introduction

The OpenDocument specification defines conformance for formula expressions and evaluators. For evaluators, there are three groups of features that an evaluator may support. This chapter defines the basic requirements for the individual conformance targets.

2.2 OpenDocument Formula Expression

An OpenDocument formula expression shall adhere to the expression syntax defined in chapter 4. It may use subsets or supersets of OpenFormula.

2.3 Evaluator Conformance

2.3.1 OpenDocument Formula Evaluator

An OpenDocument Formula Evaluator is a program that can parse and recalculate OpenDocument formula expressions, and that meets the following additional requirements:

  1. A)It may implement subsets or supersets of this specification. 

  2. B)It shall conform to one of: (C16) OpenDocument Formula Small Group Evaluator, (C17) OpenDocument Formula Medium Group Evaluator or (C18) OpenDocument Formula Large Group Evaluator 

  3. C)It may implement additional functions beyond those defined in this specification. It may further implement additional formula syntax, additional operations, additional optional parameters for functions, or may consider function parameters to be optional when they are required by this specification. 

  4. D)Applications should clearly document their extensions in their user documentation, both online and paper, in a manner so users would be likely to be aware when they are using a non-standard extension. 

Note 1: An expression may reference a function not defined by this specification by name, or depend on implementation-defined behavior, or on semantics not guaranteed by this specification. Reference to or dependence upon functions or behavior not defined by this standard may impair the interoperability of the resulting expression(s).

Note 2: This specification defines formulas in terms of a canonical text representation used for exchange. If formulas are contained in XML attributes some characters shall be escaped as required by the XML specification (e.g., the character & shall be escaped in XML attributes using notations such as &amp;). All string and character literals references by this specification are in the value space defined by [UNICODE] thus, “A” is U+0041, “Z” is U+005A, and the range of characters “A-Z” is the range U+0041 through U+005A inclusive.

2.3.2 OpenDocument Formula Small Group Evaluator

An OpenDocument Formula Small Group Evaluator is an OpenDocument Formula Evaluator that meets the following additional requirements:

  1. A)It shall implement at least the limits defined in the “Basic Limits” section. 3.7 

  2. B)It shall implement the syntax defined in these sections on syntax: Criteria 4.11.11; Basic Expressions 5.2; Constant Numbers 5.3; Constant Strings 5.4; Operators 5.5; Functions and Function Parameters 5.6; Nonstandard Function Names 5.7; References 5.8; Simple Named Expressions ; Errors 5.12; Whitespace 5.14. 

  3. C)It shall implement all implicit conversions for the types it implements, at least Text 6.3.14, Conversion to Number 6.3.5, Reference , Conversion to Logical 6.3.12, and when an expression returns an Error. 

  4. D)It shall implement the following operators (which are all the operators except reference union (~)): Infix Operator Ordered Comparison ("<", "<=", ">", ">=") 6.3.5; Infix Operator "&” 6.4.10; Infix Operator "+” 6.4.2; Infix Operator "-” 6.4.3; Infix Operator "*” 6.4.4; Infix Operator "/” 6.4.5; Infix Operator "^” 6.4.6; Infix Operator "=” 6.4.7; Infix Operator "<>” 6.4.8; Postfix Operator “%” 6.4.14; Prefix Operator “+” 6.4.15; Prefix Operator “-” 6.4.16; Infix Operator Reference Intersection ("!") 6.4.12; Infix Operator Range (":") 6.4.11. 

  5. E)It shall implement at least the following functions as defined in this specification: ABS 6.16.2 ; ACOS 6.16.3 ; AND 6.15.2 ; ASIN 6.16.7 ; ATAN 6.16.9 ; ATAN2 6.16.10 ; AVERAGE 6.18.3 ; AVERAGEIF 6.18.5 ; CHOOSE 6.14.3 ; COLUMNS 6.13.5 ; COS 6.16.19 ; COUNT 6.13.6 ; COUNTA 6.13.7 ; COUNTBLANK 6.13.8 ; COUNTIF 6.13.9 ; DATE 6.10.2 ; DAVERAGE 6.9.2 ; DAY 6.10.5 ; DCOUNT 6.9.3 ; DCOUNTA 6.9.4 ; DDB 6.12.14 ; DEGREES 6.16.25 ; DGET 6.9.5 ; DMAX 6.9.6 ; DMIN 6.9.7 ; DPRODUCT 6.9.8 ; DSTDEV 6.9.9 ; DSTDEVP 6.9.10 ; DSUM 6.9.11 ; DVAR 6.9.12 ; DVARP 6.9.13 ; EVEN 6.16.30 ; EXACT 6.20.8 ; EXP 6.16.31 ; FACT 6.16.32 ; FALSE 6.15.3 ; FIND 6.20.9 ; FV 6.12.20 ; HLOOKUP 6.14.5 ; HOUR 6.10.10 ; IF 6.15.4 ; INDEX 6.14.6 ; INT 6.17.2 ; IRR 6.12.24 ; ISBLANK 6.13.14 ; ISERR 6.13.15 ; ISERROR 6.13.16 ; ISLOGICAL 6.13.19 ; ISNA 6.13.20 ; ISNONTEXT 6.13.21 ; ISNUMBER 6.13.22 ; ISTEXT 6.13.25 ; LEFT 6.20.12 ; LEN 6.20.13 ; LN 6.16.39 ; LOG 6.16.40 ; LOG10 6.16.41 ; LOWER 6.20.14 ; MATCH 6.14.9 ; MAX 6.18.45 ; MID 6.20.15 ; MIN 6.18.48 ; MINUTE 6.10.12 ; MOD 6.16.42 ; MONTH 6.10.13 ; N 6.13.26 ; NA 6.13.27 ; NOT 6.15.7 ; NOW 6.10.15 ; NPER 6.12.29 ; NPV 6.12.30 ; ODD 6.16.44 ; OR 6.15.8 ; PI 6.16.45 ; PMT 6.12.36 ; POWER 6.16.46 ; PRODUCT 6.16.47 ; PROPER 6.20.16 ; PV 6.12.41 ; RADIANS 6.16.49 ; RATE 6.12.42 ; REPLACE 6.20.17 ; REPT 6.20.18 ; RIGHT 6.20.19 ; ROUND 6.17.5 ; ROWS 6.13.30 ; SECOND 6.10.16 ; SIN 6.16.55 ; SLN 6.12.45 ; SQRT 6.16.58 ; STDEV 6.18.72 ; STDEVP 6.18.74 ; SUBSTITUTE 6.20.21 ; SUM 6.16.61 ; SUMIF 6.16.62 ; SYD 6.12.46 ; T 6.20.22 ; TAN 6.16.69 ; TIME 6.10.17 ; TODAY 6.10.19 ; TRIM 6.20.24 ; TRUE 6.15.9 ; TRUNC 6.17.8 ; UPPER 6.20.27 ; VALUE 6.13.34 ; VAR 6.18.82 ; VARP 6.18.84 ; VLOOKUP 6.14.12 ; WEEKDAY 6.10.20 ; YEAR 6.10.23 

  6. F)It need not evaluate references that contain more than one area. 

  7. G)It need not implement inline arrays 5.13, complex numbers 4.4, and the reference union operator 6.4.13. 

Note: This specification does not mandate a user interface for international characters, so a resource-constrained application may choose to not show the traditional glyph (e.g., it may show the [UNICODE] numeric code instead).

2.3.3 OpenDocument Formula Medium Group Evaluator

An OpenDocument Formula Medium Group Evaluator is an OpenDocument Small Group Formula Evaluator that meets the following additional requirements:

  1. A)It shall implement the following functions as defined in this specification: ACCRINT 6.12.2 ; ACCRINTM 6.12.3 ; ACOSH 6.16.4 ; ACOT 6.16.5 ; ACOTH 6.16.6 ; ADDRESS 6.14.2 ; ASINH 6.16.8 ; ATANH 6.16.11 ; AVEDEV 6.18.2 ; BESSELI 6.16.12 ; BESSELJ 6.16.13 ; BESSELK 6.16.14 ; BESSELY 6.16.15 ; BETADIST 6.18.7 ; BETAINV 6.18.8 ; BINOMDIST 6.18.10 ; CEILING 6.17.1 ; CHAR 6.20.3 ; CLEAN 6.20.4 ; CODE 6.20.5 ; COLUMN 6.13.4 ; COMBIN 6.16.16 ; CONCATENATE 6.20.6 ; CONFIDENCE 6.18.16 ; CONVERT 6.16.18 ; CORREL 6.18.17 ; COSH 6.16.20 ; COT 6.16.21 ; COTH 6.16.22 ; COUPDAYBS 6.12.5 ; COUPDAYS 6.12.6 ; COUPDAYSNC 6.12.7 ; COUPNCD 6.12.7 ; COUPNUM 6.12.9 ; COUPPCD 6.12.10 ; COVAR 6.18.18 ; CRITBINOM 6.18.19 ; CUMIPMT 6.12.11 ; CUMPRINC 6.12.12 ; DATEVALUE 6.10.4 ; DAYS360 6.10.7 ; DB 6.12.13 ; DEVSQ 6.18.20 ; DISC 6.12.15 ; DOLLARDE 6.12.16 ; DOLLARFR 6.12.17 ; DURATION 6.12.18 ; EFFECT 6.12.19 ; EOMONTH 6.10.9 ; ERF 6.16.27 ; ERFC 6.16.28 ; EXPONDIST 6.18.21 ; FISHER 6.18.26 ; FISHERINV 6.18.27 ; FIXED 6.20.10 ; FLOOR 6.17.3 ; FORECAST 6.18.28 ; FTEST 6.18.30 ; GAMMADIST 6.18.31 ; GAMMAINV 6.18.32 ; GAMMALN 6.16.35 ; GCD 6.16.36 ; GEOMEAN 6.18.34 ; HARMEAN 6.18.36 ; HYPGEOMDIST 6.18.37 ; INTERCEPT 6.18.38 ; INTRATE 6.12.22 ; ISEVEN 6.13.17 ; ISODD 6.13.23 ; ISOWEEKNUM 6.10.11 ; KURT 6.18.39 ; LARGE 6.18.40 ; LCM 6.16.38 ; LEGACY.CHIDIST 6.18.11 ; LEGACY.CHIINV 6.18.13 ; LEGACY.CHITEST 6.18.15 ; LEGACY.FDIST 6.18.23 ; LEGACY.FINV 6.18.25 ; LEGACY.NORMSDIST 6.18.54 ; LEGACY.NORMSINV 6.18.55 ; LEGACY.TDIST 6.18.77 ; LINEST 6.18.41 ; LOGEST 6.18.42 ; LOGINV 6.18.43 ; LOGNORMDIST 6.18.44 ; LOOKUP 6.14.8 ; MDURATION 6.12.26 ; MEDIAN 6.18.47 ; MINVERSE 6.5.3 ; MIRR 6.12.27 ; MMULT 6.5.4 ; MODE 6.18.50 ; MROUND 6.17.4 ; MULTINOMIAL 6.16.43 ; NEGBINOMDIST 6.18.51 ; NETWORKDAYS 6.10.14 ; NOMINAL 6.12.28 ; ODDFPRICE 6.12.31 ; ODDFYIELD 6.12.32 ; ODDLPRICE 6.12.33 ; ODDLYIELD 6.12.34 ; OFFSET 6.14.11 ; PEARSON 6.18.56 ; PERCENTILE 6.18.57 ; PERCENTRANK 6.18.58 ; PERMUT 6.18.59 ; POISSON 6.18.62 ; PRICE 6.12.38 ; PRICEMAT 6.12.40 ; PROB 6.18.63 ; QUARTILE 6.18.64 ; QUOTIENT 6.16.48 ; RAND 6.16.50 ; RANDBETWEEN 6.16.51 ; RANK 6.18.65 ; RECEIVED 6.12.43 ; ROMAN 6.19.17 ; ROUNDDOWN 6.17.6 ; ROUNDUP 6.17.7 ; ROW 6.13.29 ; RSQ 6.18.66 ; SERIESSUM 6.16.53 ; SIGN 6.16.54 ; SINH 6.16.56 ; SKEW 6.18.67 ; SKEWP 6.18.68 ; SLOPE 6.18.69 ; SMALL 6.18.70 ; SQRTPI 6.16.59 ; STANDARDIZE 6.18.71 ; STDEVA 6.18.73 ; STDEVPA 6.18.75 ; STEYX 6.18.76 ; SUBTOTAL 6.16.60 ; SUMPRODUCT 6.16.64 ; SUMSQ 6.16.65 ; SUMX2MY2 6.16.66 ; SUMX2PY2 6.16.67 ; SUMXMY2 6.16.68 ; TANH 6.16.70 ; TBILLEQ 6.12.47 ; TBILLPRICE 6.12.48 ; TBILLYIELD 6.12.49 ; TIMEVALUE 6.10.18 ; TINV 6.18.78 ; TRANSPOSE 6.5.6 ; TREND 6.18.79 ; TRIMMEAN 6.18.80 ; TTEST 6.18.81 ; TYPE 6.13.33 ; VARA 6.18.83 ; VDB 6.12.50 ; WEEKNUM 6.10.21 ; WEIBULL 6.18.86 ; WORKDAY 6.10.22 ; XIRR 6.12.51 ; XNPV 6.12.52 ; YEARFRAC 6.10.24 ; YIELD 6.12.53 ; YIELDDISC 6.12.54 ; YIELDMAT 6.12.55 ; ZTEST 6.18.87 

  2. B)It shall implement the Infix Operator Reference Union ("~") 6.4.13 

  3. C)It shall evaluate references with more than one area. 

2.3.4 OpenDocument Formula Large Group Evaluator

An OpenDocument Formula Large Group Evaluator is an OpenDocument Medium Group Formula Evaluator that meets the following additional requirements:

  1. A)It shall implement the syntax defined in these sections on syntax: Inline Arrays 5.13; Automatic Intersection 5.10.6; External Named Expressions 5.11. 

  2. B)It shall implement the complex number type as discussed in the section on Complex Number 4.4, array formulas, and Sheet-local Named Expressions. 

It shall implement the following functions as defined in this specification:  AMORLINC 6.12.4 ; ARABIC 6.19.2 ; AREAS 6.13.2 ; ASC 6.20.2 ; AVERAGEA 6.18.4 ; AVERAGEIFS 6.18.6 ; BASE 6.19.3 ; BIN2DEC 6.19.4 ; BIN2HEX 6.19.5 ; BIN2OCT 6.19.6 ; BINOM.DIST.RANGE 6.18.9 ; BITAND 6.6.2 ; BITLSHIFT 6.6.3 ; BITOR 6.6.4 ; BITRSHIFT 6.6.5 ; BITXOR 6.6.6 ; CHISQDIST 6.18.12 ; CHISQINV 6.18.14 ; COMBINA 6.16.17 ; COMPLEX 6.8.2 ; COUNTIFS 6.13.10 ; CSC 6.16.23 ; 6.16.23CSCH 6.16.24 ; DATEDIF 6.10.3 ; DAYS 6.10.6 ; DDE 6.11.2 ; DEC2BIN 6.19.7 ; DEC2HEX 6.19.8 ; DEC2OCT 6.19.9 ; DECIMAL 6.19.10 ; DELTA 6.16.26 ; EDATE 6.10.8 ; ERROR.TYPE 6.13.11; EUROCONVERT 6.16.29 ; FACTDOUBLE 6.16.33 ; FDIST 6.18.22 ; FINDB 6.7.2 ; FINV 6.18.24 ; FORMULA 6.13.12 ; FREQUENCY 6.18.29 ; FVSCHEDULE 6.12.21 ; GAMMA 6.16.34 ; GAUSS 6.18.33 ; GESTEP 6.16.37 ; GETPIVOTDATA 6.14.4 ; GROWTH 6.18.35 ; HEX2BIN 6.19.11 ; HEX2DEC 6.19.12 ; HEX2OCT 6.19.13 ; HYPERLINK 6.11.3 ; IFERROR 6.15.5 ; IFNA 6.15.6 ; IMABS 6.8.3 ; IMAGINARY 6.8.4 ; IMARGUMENT 6.8.5 ; IMCONJUGATE 6.8.6 ; IMCOS 6.8.7 ; IMCOT 6.8.9 ; IMCSC 6.8.10 ; IMCSCH 6.8.11 ; IMDIV 6.8.12 ; IMEXP 6.8.13 ; IMLN 6.8.14 ; IMLOG10 6.8.15 ; IMLOG2 6.8.16 ; IMPOWER 6.8.17 ; IMPRODUCT 6.8.18 ; IMREAL 6.8.19 ; IMSEC 6.8.22 ; IMSECH 6.8.23 ; IMSIN 6.8.20 ; IMSQRT 6.8.24 ; IMSUB 6.8.25 ; IMSUM 6.8.26 ; IMTAN 6.8.27; INDIRECT 6.14.7 ; INFO 6.13.13 ; IPMT 6.12.23 ; ISFORMULA 6.13.18 ; ISPMT 6.12.25 ; ISREF 6.13.24 ; JIS 6.20.11 ; LEFTB 6.7.3 ; LENB 6.7.4 ; MAXA 6.18.46 ; MDETERM 6.5.2 ; MULTIPLE.OPERATIONS 6.14.10 ; MUNIT 6.5.5 ; MIDB 6.7.5 ; MINA 6.18.49 ; NORMDIST 6.18.52 ; NORMINV 6.18.53 ; NUMBERVALUE 6.13.28 ; OCT2BIN 6.19.14 ; OCT2DEC 6.19.15 ; OCT2HEX 6.19.16 ; PDURATION 6.12.35 ; PERMUTATIONA 6.18.60 ; PHI 6.18.61 ; PPMT 6.12.37 ; PRICEDISC 6.12.39 ; REPLACEB 6.7.6 ; RIGHTB 6.7.7 ; RRI 6.12.44 ; SEARCH 6.20.20 ; SEARCHB 6.7.8 ; SEC 6.16.52 ; SECH 6.16.57 ; SHEET 6.13.31 ; SHEETS 6.13.32 ; SUMIFS 6.16.63 ; TEXT 6.20.23 ; UNICHAR 6.20.25 ; UNICODE 6.20.26 ; VARPA 6.18.85 ; XOR 6.15.10

Note: The following functions are documented by this specification, but not included even in the Large group:CELL 6.13.3 ; DOLLAR 6.20.7

2.4 Variances (Implementation-defined, Unspecified, and Behavioral Changes)

Applications should document all implementation-defined variances from this standard in a manner that enables application users to obtain the information.

In a few cases a specific approach is required (e.g., string indexes begin at one), which may vary in the user interfaces of different implementations.

Note 1: In practice, for nearly all documents the differences are irrelevant. The primary variances and differences from OpenFormula and some existing applications are:

Note 2: Interoperability is improved by the use of the DATE 6.10.2 and TIME 6.10.17 functions or the textual [ISO8601] date representation because dates in that format do not rely upon epoch or locale-specific settings.

In an OpenDocument file, calculation settings impact formula recalculation, which can be the same or different from a particular application's defaults. These include whether or not text comparisons are case-sensitive, or if search criteria apply to the whole cell.

3 Formula Processing Model

3.1 General

This section describes the basic formula processing model: how expressions are calculated, when recalculation occurs, and limits on formulas.

3.2 Expression Evaluation

3.2.1 General

OpenFormula defines rules for the evaluation of expressions as well as the functions and operators that appear in expressions.

3.2.2 Expression Calculation

Expressions in OpenFormula shall be evaluated by application of the following rules:

  1. 1)If an expression consists of a constant Number (5.3), a constant String (5.4), a Reference (5.8), constant Error (per section 5.12), the value of that type is returned.  

  2. 2)If an expression consists of one or more operations, apply the operators in order of precedence and associativity as defined by Table 1 in 5.5 (Operators). Precedence of operators may be altered by the use of "(" (LEFT PARENTHESES, U+0028) and ")" (RIGHT PARENTHESES, U+0029) to group operators. Evaluate the operator as described in Operator and Function Evaluation, 3.2.3. 

  3. 3)If an expression consists of a function call (5.6, 5.7), evaluate the function as described in Operator and Function Evaluation, 3.2.3.  

  4. 4)If an expression consists of a named expression (5.11), the result of evaluating the named expression is returned.  

  5. 5)If an expression consists of a QuotedLabel (5.10), AutomaticIntersection (5.10.6), or Array (5.13), its value is returned. Expression Syntax 5  

Once evaluation has completed:

  1. 1.If the result is a Reference and a single non-reference value is needed, it is converted to the referenced value, using the rules of Non-Scalar Evaluation, 3.3, 1.2.  

  2. 2.If the result an Array, for the display area, apply the rules of Non-Scalar Evaluation, 3.3, 1.1. 

3.2.3 Operator and Function Evaluation

Operators and functions in OpenFormula shall be evaluated according to their definitions by applying the following rules:

  1. 1.The value of all expression arguments are computed. Exceptions to computation of all arguments are noted in a function's specification. 

    Note: The practice of computing all argument expressions is known as "eager" evaluation. The IF function is an example of a function that does not require computation of all arguments.  

  2. 2.If an argument expression evaluates to Error, calculation of the operator or function may short-circuit and return the Error if the function does not suppress error propagation as noted in the function's specification.  

  3. 3.If an operator or function is passed a value of incorrect type, call the appropriate implicit conversion function to convert the value to the correct type. If conversion is not possible, generate an Error.  

  4. 4.The function or operation is called with its argument expressions' results, and the result of the function or operation is the evaluation of the expression.  

3.3 Non-Scalar Evaluation (aka 'Array expressions')

Non-scalar values passed as arguments to functions are evaluated by intersection or iteration.

  1. 1)Evaluation as an implicit intersection of the argument with the expression's evaluation position. 

    1. 1.1)Inline Arrays
      Element (0;0) of the array is used in place of the array. 

      Note 1:
      =ABS({-3;-4})         => ABS(-3)        // row vector
      =ABS({-3|-4})        => ABS(-3)        // column vector
      =ABS({-3;-4|-6;-8})        => ABS(-3)        // matrix
      ={1;2;3|4;5;6}        => 1                // simple display 

    2. 1.2)References 

      1. 1.2.1)If the target reference is a row-vector (Nx1), use the value at the intersection of the evaluation position's column and the reference's row. 

        Note 2:
        in cell B2 : =ABS(A1:C1) => ABS(B1)
        If there is no intersection the result is #N/A or a more specific Error value. 

        Note 3: in cell D4 : =ABS(A1:C1) => #N/A or a more specific Error value. 

      2. 1.2.2)If the target reference is a column-vector (1xM), the value at the intersection of the evaluation position's row and the reference's column. 

        Note 4:
        in cell B2 : =ABS(A1:A3) => ABS(A2)
        in cell D4 : =ABS(A1:A3) => #N/A or a more specific Error value. 

  2. 2)Matrix evaluation. 

    If an expression is being evaluated in a cell flagged as a being part of a 'Matrix' (OpenDocument Part 3, 19.683 table:number-matrix-columns-spanned): 

    1. 2.1)The portion of a non-scalar result to be displayed need not be co-extensive with a specified display area. The portion of the non-scalar result to be displayed is determined by: 

      1. 2.1.1)If the position to be displayed exists in the result, display that position. 

      2. 2.1.2)If the non-scalar result is 1 column wide, subsequent columns in the display area display the value in the first column. This applies to
        - scalars '3'
        - singletons '{3}'
        - column vectors '{1|2|3}' 

      3. 2.1.3)If the non-scalar result is 1 row high, subsequent rows in the display area use the value of the first row. This applies to
        - scalars '3'
        - singletons '{3}'
        - row vectors '{1;2;3}' 

      4. 2.1.4)If none of the other rules apply #N/A 

        Note 5:
        in matrix A1:B3 with ={1;2|3;4|5;6}        : cell B2 contains 4.        [Rule 2.1.1]
        in matrix A1:B3 with ={1|3|5}                : cell B2 contains 3.        [Rule 2.1.1 for row, and Rule 2.1.2 column]
        in matrix A1:B3 with ={2;4}                : cell B2 contains 4.        [Rule 2.1.3 for row, and Rule 2.1.1 column]
        in matrix A1:C4 with ={1;2|3;4|5;6}        : cell C1,A4 contain #N/A. [Rule 2.1.4] 

        Note 6: if a value is not requested it is not displayed
        in matrix A1:B2 with ={1;2|3;4|5;6}        : the value '6' is not displayed because B3 is not part of the display matrix. 

    2. 2.2)Calculations with non-scalar inputs are a generalization of (2.1). 


      When evaluating a formula in 'matrix' mode, and a non-scalar value is passed to a function argument that expects a scalar, the function is evaluated multiple times, iterating over the non-scalar input(s) and putting the function result into a matrix at the position corresponding to the input. Unary/Binary operators, other than range and union, follow the rules for scalar functions when passed non-scalar values. 

      Inline arrays and references are interchangeable. 

      1. 2.2.1)Functions returning arrays are not eligible for implicit iteration. When evaluated in 'matrix' mode the {0;0}th element is used. 

        Note 7:
        e.g. =SUM(INDIRECT({"A1";"A2")) would produce the value in A1 when evaluated in array mode. 

      2. 2.2.2)The result matrix is rectangular, sized with the maximum number of rows and columns from all non-scalar arguments. 

        Note 8:
        ={1;2}+{3;4;5}        => {4;6;#N/A}
        ={1}+{1;2}        => {2;3} 

      3. 2.2.3)The result matrix is populated by extracting the corresponding value from each of the non-scalar arguments based on the following rules, and evaluating the function with that set of arguments. 

        1. 2.2.3.1)If the argument data is a singleton array or a scalar the value is repeated for each evaluation. 

          Note 9:
          = 1 + {1;2;3|4;5;6}        => {2;3;4|5;6;7}
          = {1} + {1;2;3|4;5;6}        => {2;3;4|5;6;7} 

        2. 2.2.3.2)If the argument data is 1 column wide the value in the corresponding row is used to evaluate all columns in the result matrix. 

          Note 10:
          = {1|2} + {10;20|30;40}        => {11;21|32;42} 

        3. 2.2.3.3)If the argument data is 1 row height the value in the corresponding column is used to evaluate all rows in the result matrix. 

          Note 11:
          = {1;2} + {10;20|30;40}        => {11;22|31;42} 

        4. 2.2.3.4)If one argument data is 1 column wide and another argument data is 1 row height the value of the corresponding row respectively column is used to evaluate all elements in the result matrix. 

          Note 12:
          ={1;2} + {10|20}                => {11;12|21;22} 

        5. 2.2.3.5)If an argument is a 2d matrix the argument value in the position corresponding to the current output position is used if it is within range of the supplied argument, otherwise #N/A is used in the calculation. 

          Note 13:
          =MID("abcd";{1;2};{1;2;3})        => {"a";"bc";#N/A} 

3.4 Host-Defined Behaviors

A Formula Evaluator operates in an execution environment (a "host"). The behavior of the Formula Evaluator is parametrized by host-defined properties and functions.

The following properties are host-defined:

  1. 1.HOST-CASE-SENSITIVE: if true, text comparisons are case-sensitive. This influences the operators =, <>, <, <=, >, and >=, as well as database query functions that use them. Note that the EXACT function is always case-sensitive, regardless of this calculation setting. 

  2. 2.HOST-PRECISION-AS-SHOWN: If true, calculations are performed using rounded values of those displayed; otherwise, calculations are performed using the precision of the underlying numeric representation. 

    Note: This does not impose a particular numeric model. Since implementations may use binary representations, this rounding may be inexact for decimal values. 

  3. 3.HOST-SEARCH-CRITERIA-MUST-APPLY-TO-WHOLE-CELL If true, the specified search criteria shall apply to the entire cell contents if it is a text match using = or <>; if not, only a subpart of the cell content needs to match the text. 

  4. 4.HOST-AUTOMATIC-FIND-LABELS: if true, row and column labels are automatically found. 

  5. 5.HOST-USE-REGULAR-EXPRESSIONS: If true, regular expressions are used for character string comparisons and when searching. 

  6. 6.HOST-USE-WILDCARDS: If true, wildcards question mark '?' and asterisk '*' are used for character-string comparisons and when searching. Wildcards may be escaped with a tilde '~' character. 

  7. 7.HOST-NULL-YEAR: This defines how to convert a two-digit year into a four-digit year. Each two-digit year value is interpreted as a year that equals or follows this year. 

  8. 8.HOST-NULL-DATE: Defines the beginning of the epoch; a numeric date of 0 equals this date. 

  9. 9.HOST-LOCALE: The locale to be used for locale-dependent operations, such as conversion of text to dates, or text to numbers. 

  10. 10. HOST-ITERATION-STATUS: If enabled, iterative calculations of cyclic references are performed.  

  11. 11. HOST-ITERATION-MAXIMUM-DIFFERENCE: If iterative calculations of cyclic references are enabled, the maximum absolute difference between calculation steps that all involved formula cells must yield for the iteration to end and yield a result.  

  12. 12. HOST-ITERATION-STEPS: If iterative calculations of cyclic references are enabled, the maximum number of steps iterations that are performed if the results are not within HOST-ITERATION-MAXIMUM-DIFFERENCE. 

The function HOST-REFERENCE-RESOLVER(Reference) is implementation defined. This function takes as input a Unicode string containing a Reference according to section 4.8 and returns a resolved value.

3.5 When recalculation occurs

Implementations of OpenFormula typically recalculate formulas when its information is needed. Typical implementations will note what values a formula depends on, and when those dependent values are changed and the formula's results are displayed, it will re-execute the formulas that depend on them to produce the new results (choosing the formulas in the right order based on their dependencies). Implementations may recalculate when a value changes (this is termed automatic recalculation) or on user command (this is termed manual recalculation).

Some functions' dependencies are difficult to determine and/or should be recalculated more frequently. These include functions that return today's date or time, random number generator functions (such as RAND 6.16.50), or ones that indirectly determine the cells to act on. Many implementations always recalculate formulas including such functions whenever a recalculation occurs. Functions that are always recalculated whenever a recalculation occurs are termed volatile functions. Functions that are often volatile functions include CELL 6.13.3, HYPERLINK 6.11.3, INDIRECT 6.14.7, INFO 6.13.13, NOW 6.10.15, OFFSET 6.14.11, RAND 6.16.50 and TODAY 6.10.19. Functions that depend on the cell position of the formula they are contained in or the position of a cell they reference need to be recalculated whenever that cell is moved, such functions are COLUMN 6.13.4, ROW 6.13.29 and SHEET 6.13.31. In addition, formulas may indicate that they should always be recalculated during a recalculation process by including a forced recalculation marker, as described in the syntax below.

3.6 Numerical Models

This specification does not, by itself, specify a numerical implementation model, though it does imply some minimal levels of accuracy for most functions. For example, an application cannot say that it implements the infix operator “/” as specified in this document if it implements integer-only arithmetic.

3.7 Basic Limits

Evaluators which claim to support “basic limits” shall support at least the following limits:

  1. 1.formulas up to at least 1024 characters long, as measured when in OpenDocument interchange format not counting the square brackets around cell addresses, or the “.” in a cell address when the sheet name is omitted. 

  2. 2.at least 30 parameters per function when the function prototype permits a list of parameters. 

  3. 3.permit strings of ASCII characters of up to 32,767 (2^15-1) characters. 

  4. 4.support at least 7 nesting levels of functions. 

4 Types

4.1 General

All values defined by OpenFormula have a type. OpenFormula defines Text 4.2, Number 4.3, Complex Number 4.4, Logical 4.5, Error 4.6, Reference 4.8, ReferenceList 4.9 and Array 4.10 types.

4.2 Text (String)

A Text value (also called a string value) is a Character string as specified in [CharModel].

A text value of length zero is termed the empty string.

Index positions in a text value begin at 1.

Whether or not Unicode Normalization [UTR15] is performed on formulas, formula results or user inputs is implementation-defined. Some functions defined in OpenFormula are labeled as "normalization-sensitive", meaning that the results of the formula evaluation may differ depending on whether normalization occurs, and which normalization form is used. Mixing operands of different normalization forms in the same calculation is undefined.

4.3 Number

4.3.1 General

A number is a numeric value.

Numbers shall be able to represent fractional values (they shall not be limited to only integers). Evaluators may implement Number with a fixed or with a variable bit length. A cell with a constant numeric value has the Number type.

Implementations typically support many subtypes of Number, including Date, Time, DateTime, Percentage, fixed-point arithmetic, and arithmetic supporting arbitrarily long integers, and determine the display format from this. All such Number subtypes shall yield TRUE for the ISNUMBER 6.13.22 function.

Note: This specification does not require that specific subtypes be distinguishable from each other, or that the subtype be tracked, but in practice most implementations do such tracking because requiring users to manually format every cell appropriately becomes tedious very quickly. Automatically determining the most likely subtype is especially important for a good user interface when generating OpenDocument format, since some subtypes (such as date, time, and currency) are stored in a different manner depending on their subtype. Thus, this specification identifies some common subtypes and identifies those subtypes where relevant in some function definitions, as an aid to implementing good user interfaces. Many applications vary in the subtype produced when combining subtypes (e.g., what is the result when percentages are multiplied together), so unless otherwise noted these are unspecified. Typical implementations try to heuristically determine the "right" format for a cell when a formula is first created, based on the operations in the formula. Users can then override this format, so as a result the heuristics are not important for data exchange (and thus outside the scope of this specification).

All Number subtypes shall yield TRUE for the ISNUMBER function.

4.3.2 Time

Time is a subtype of Number.

Time is represented as a fraction of a day.

4.3.3 Date

Date is a subtype of Number.

Date is represented by an integer value.

A serial date is the expression of a date as the number of days elapsed from a start date called the epoch.

Evaluators shall support all dates from 1904-01-01 through 9999-12-31 (inclusive) in calculations, should support dates from 1899-12-30 through 9999-12-31 (inclusive) and may support a wider date range.

Note 1: Using expressions that assume serial numbers are based on a particular epoch may cause interoperability issues.

Evaluators shall support positive serial numbers. Evaluators may support negative serial numbers to represent dates before an epoch.

Note 2: It is implementation-defined if the year 1900 is treated as a leap year.

Note 3: Evaluators that treat 1900 as a non-leap year can use the epoch date 1899-12-30 to compensate for serial numbers that originate from evaluators that treat 1900 as a leap year and use 1899-12-31 as an epoch date.

4.3.4 DateTime

DateTime is a subtype of Number. It is a Date plus Time.

4.3.5 Percentage

A percentage is a subtype of Number that may be displayed by multiplying the number by 100 and adding the sign “%” or with other formatting depending upon the number format assigned to the cell where it appears.

4.3.6 Currency

A currency is a subtype of Number that may appear with or without a currency symbol or with other formatting depending upon the number format assigned to the cell where it appears.

4.3.7 Logical (Number)

Applications may have a Logical type distinct from both Number and Text (see 4.5 Logical (Boolean)), but Logical values may also be represented by the Number type using the values 1 (True) and 0 (False). (see 8.2 Distinct Logical for details)

4.4 Complex Number

A complex number (sometimes also called an imaginary number) is a pair of real numbers including a real part and an imaginary part. In mathematics, complex numbers are often written as x + iy, where x (the real part) and y (the imaginary part) are real numbers and i is 1
. A complex number can also be written as reiθ = rcos(θ) + irsin(θ), where r is the modulus of the complex number (a real number) and θ is the argument or phase (a real number representing an angle in radians).
 

A complex number may, but need not be, represented as a Number or Text. The results of the functions ISNUMBER() 6.13.22 and ISTEXT() 6.13.25 are implementation-defined when applied to a complex number.

Functions and operators that accept complex numbers shall accept Text values as complex numbers (Conversion to Complex Number 6.3.10), as well as Numbers that are not complex numbers.

Note 1: IMSUM("3i";4) will produce the same result as COMPLEX(4;3).

Note 2: Expression authors should be aware that use of functions that are not defined by OpenFormula as accepting complex numbers as input may impair interoperability.

Equality can be tested using IMSUB to compute the difference, use IMABS to find the absolute difference, and then ensure the absolute difference is smaller than or equal to some nonnegative value (for exact equality, compare for equality with 0).

4.5 Logical (Boolean)

Applications may have a Logical type distinct from both Number and Text, but Logical values may also be represented by the Number type using the values 1 (True) and 0 (False) (see 4.3.7 Logical (Number)). (see 8.2 Distinct Logical for details)

4.6 Error

An Error is one of a set of possible error values. Implementations may have many different error values (see 5.12), but one error value in particular is distinct: #N/A, the result of the NA() function. Users may choose to enter some data values as #N/A, so that this error value propagates to any other formula that uses it, and may test for this using the function ISNA().

Functions and operators that receive one or more error values as an input shall produce one of those input error values as their result, except when the formula or operator is specifically defined to do otherwise.

In an OpenDocument document, if an error value is the result of a cell computation it shall be stored as if it was a string. That is, the office:value-type (OpenDocument Part 3, 19.389) of an error value is string; if the computed value is stored, it is stored in the attribute office:string-value (OpenDocument Part 3, 19.383).

Note: This does not change an Error into a string type (since the Error will be restored on recalculation); this enables applications which cannot recalculate values to display the error information.

4.7 Empty Cell

An empty cell is neither zero nor the empty string, and an empty cell can be distinguished from cells containing values (including zero and the empty string). An empty cell is not the same as an Error, in particular, it is distinguishable from the Error #N/A (not available).

4.8 Reference

A cell position is the location of a single cell at the intersection of a column and a row.

A cell strip consists of cell positions in the same row and in one or more contiguous columns.

A cell rectangle consists of cell positions in the same cell strips of one or more contiguous rows.

A cell cuboid consists of cell positions in the same cell rectangles of one or more contiguous sheets.

A reference is the smallest cuboid that (1) contains specifically-identified cell positions and/or specifically-identified complete columns/rows such that (2) removal of any cell positions either violates condition (1) or does not leave a cuboid.

Cell positions in a cell cuboid/rectangle/strip can resolve to empty cells (section 4.7).

The definitions of specific operations and functions that allow references as operands and parameters stipulate any particular limitations there are on forms of references and how empty cells, when permitted, are interpreted.

4.9 ReferenceList

A reference list contains 1 or more references, in order. A reference list can be passed as an argument to functions where passing one reference results in an identical computation as an arbitrary sequence of single references occupying the identical cell range.

Note 1: For example, SUM([.A1:.B2]) is identical to SUM([.A1]~[.B2]~[.A2]~[.B1]), but COLUMNS([.A1:.B2]), resulting in 2 columns, is not identical to COLUMNS([.A1]~[.B2]~[.A2]~[.B1]), where iterating over the reference list would result in 4 columns.

A reference list cannot be converted to an array.

Note 2: For example, in array context {ABS([.A1]~[.B2]~[.A2]~[.B1])} is an invalid expression, whereas {ABS([.A1:.B2])} is not.

Passing a reference list where a function does not expect one shall generate an Error. Passing a reference list in array iteration context to a function expecting a scalar value shall generate an Error.

4.10 Array

An array is a set of rows each with the same number of columns that contain one or more values. There is a maximum of one value per intersection of row and column. The intersection of a row and column may contain no value.

4.11 Pseudotypes

4.11.1 General

Many functions require a type or a set of types with special properties, and/or process them specially. For example, a "Database" requires headers that are the field names. These specialized types are called pseudotypes.

4.11.2 Scalar

A Scalar value is a value that has a single value. A reference to more than one cell is not a scalar (by itself), and is converted to one as described below. An array with more than one element is not a scalar. The types Number (including a complex number), Logical, and Text are scalars.

4.11.3 DateParam

A DateParam is a value that is either a Number (interpreted as a serial number; 4.3.3) or Text; text is automatically converted to a date value. 6.3.15

4.11.4 TimeParam

A TimeParam is a value that is either a Number (interpreted as a serial number; 4.3.2) or Text; text is automatically converted to a time value (fraction of a day). 6.3.16

4.11.5 Integer

An integer is a subtype of Number that has no fractional value. An integer X is equal to INT(X). Division of one integer by another integer may produce a non-integer.

4.11.6  TextOrNumber

TextOrNumber is a value that is either a Number or Text.

4.11.7 Basis

4.11.7.1 General

A basis is a subtype of Integer that specifies the day-count convention to be used in a calculation.

This standard defines five day-count conventions, corresponding to widely used current and historical accounting conventions. Each of these five bases defines two things:

  1. 1.How to calculate the number of days between two dates, date1 and date2. 

  2. 2.How to calculate the number of days in each year between two dates, date1 and date2. 

Historically day-count bases used the naming convention x/y, which indicated that the convention assumed x days per month and y days per year. These names are given for reference purposes.

Date Basis

Historical Name

Day Count

Days in Year

0

US (NASD) 30/360

Procedure A, 4.11.7.3

Procedure D, 4.11.7.6

1

Actual/Actual

Procedure B, 4.11.7.4

Procedure E, 4.11.7.7

2

Actual/360

Procedure B, 4.11.7.4

Procedure D, 4.11.7.6

3

Actual/365

Procedure B, 4.11.7.4

Procedure F, 4.11.7.8

4

European 30/360

Procedure C, 4.11.7.5

Procedure D, 4.11.7.6

4.11.7.2 Procedural Notation

The day-count procedures are expressed using notations defined as:

Note: Some of the day count procedures use intermediate results that contain counter-factual dates, such as February 30th. This is not an error.  The above functions work on such dates as well, e.g., day(February 30th) == 30.

4.11.7.3 Procedure A

  1. 1.truncate(date1), truncate(date2) 

  2. 2.If date1==date2 return 0 

  3. 3.If date1> date2, then swap the values of date1 and date2. 

  4. 4.If day(date1)==31 then subtract 1 day from date1 

  5. 5.If day(date1)==30 and day(date2)==31 then subtract 1 day from date2 

  6. 6.If both date1 and date2 are the last day of February, change date2 to the 30th of the month. 

  7. 7.If date1 is the last day of February, change it to the 30th of the month. 

  8. 8.Return (year(date2)*360 + month(date2)*30 + day(date2)) - (year(date1)*360 + month(date1)*30 + day(date1)). 

4.11.7.4 Procedure B

  1. 1.truncate(date1), truncate(date2) 

  2. 2.If date1> date2, then swap the values of date1 and date2. 

  3. 3.Return the actual numbers of days between date1 and date2, inclusive of date1, but not inclusive of date2. 

4.11.7.5 Procedure C

  1. 1.truncate(date1), truncate(date2) 

  2. 2.If date1==date2 return 0 

  3. 3.If date1> date2, then swap the values of date1 and date2. 

  4. 4.If day(date1)==31 then subtract 1 from date1 

  5. 5.If day(date2)==31 then subtract 1 from date 2 

  6. 6.Return (year(date2)*360 + month(date2)*30 + day(date2)) - (year(date1)*360 + month(date1)*30 + day(date1)). 

4.11.7.6 Procedure D

  1. 1.Return 360 

4.11.7.7 Procedure E

  1. 1.Evaluate A: year(date1) != year(date2) 

  2. 2.Evaluate B: year(date2)!=year(date1)+1  

  3. 3.Evaluate C: month(date1) < month(date2) 

  4. 4.Evaluate D: month(date1) == month(date2)  

  5. 5.Evaluate E: day(date1) < day(date2) 

  6. 6.Evaluate F: (A and B) or (A and C) or (A and D and E) 

  7. 7.If F is true then return the average of the number of days in each year between date1 and date2, inclusive.  

  8. 8.Otherwise, if A and is-leap-year(year(date1)) then return 366 

  9. 9.Otherwise, if a February 29 occurs between date1 and date2 then return 366 

  10. 10. Otherwise, if date2 is a February 29, then return 366 

  11. 11. Otherwise return 365 

4.11.7.8 Procedure F

  1. 1.Return 365 

4.11.8 Criterion

A criterion is a single cell Reference, Number or Text. It is used in comparisons with cell contents.

A reference to an empty cell is interpreted as the numeric value 0.

A matching expression can be:

4.11.9 Database

A database is a rectangular organized set of data. Any database has a set of one or more fields that determine the structure of the database. A database has a set of zero or more records with data, and each record contains data for every field (though that field may be empty).

Evaluators shall support the use of ranges as databases if they support any database functions. The first row of a range is interpreted as a set of field names.

Note: Field names of type Text and unique without regard to case enhance the interoperability of data. It is also a common expectation that rows following the first row of data are data records that correspond to field names in the first row.

A single cell containing text can be used as a database; if it is, it is a database with a single field and no data records.

4.11.10 Field

A field is a value that selects a field in a database; it is also called a field selector. If the field selector is Text, it selects the field in the database with the same name.

Evaluators should match the database field name case-insensitively.

If a field selector is a Number, it is a positive integer and used to select the fields. Fields are numbered from left to right beginning with the number 1.

All functions that accept a field parameter shall, when evaluated, return an Error if the selected field does not exist.

4.11.11 Criteria

A criteria is a rectangular set of values, with at least one column and two rows, that selects matching records from a database. The first row lists fields against which expressions will be matched. 4.11.10 Rows after the first row contain fields with expressions for matching against database records.

For a record to be selected from a database, all of the expressions in a criteria row shall match.

A reference to an empty cell is interpreted as the numeric value 0.

4.11.12 Sequences (NumberSequence, NumberSequenceList, DateSequence, LogicalSequence, and ComplexSequence)

Some functions accept a sequence, i.e., a value that is to be treated as a sequential series of values. The following are sequences: NumberSequence, NumberSequenceList, DateSequence, LogicalSequence, and ComplexSequence.

When evaluating a function that accepts a sequence, the evaluator shall follow the rules for that sequence as defined in section 6.3. When processing a ReferenceList, the references are processed in order (first, second if any, and so on). In a cuboid, the first sheet is first processed, followed by later sheets (if any) in order. Inside a sheet, it is implementation-defined as to whether the values are processed row-at-a-time or column-at-a-time, but it shall be one of these two processing orders. If processing row-at-a-time, the sequence shall be produced by processing each row in turn, from smallest to largest column value (e.g., A1, B1, C1). If processing column-at-a-time, the sequence shall be produced by processing each column at a time, from the smallest to the largest row value (e.g., A1, A2, A3).

4.11.13 Any

Any represents a value of any type defined in this standard, including Error values.

5 Expression Syntax

5.1 General

The OpenFormula syntax is defined using the BNF notation of the XML specification, chapter 6 [XML1.0]. Each syntax rule is defined using "::=".

Note: Formulas are typically embedded inside an XML document. When this occurs, characters (such as "<", ">", '"', and "&") shall be escaped, as described in section 2.4 of the XML specification [XML1.0]. In particular, the less-than symbol "<" is typically represented as “&lt;”, the double-quote symbol as “&quot;”, and the ampersand symbol as “&amp;” (alternatively, a numeric character reference can be used).

5.2 Basic Expressions

Formulas may start with a '=' (EQUALS SIGN, U+003D), which if present may be followed by a “forced recalculate” marker '=' (EQUALS SIGN, U+003D), followed by an expression. If the second '=' (EQUALS SIGN, U+003D) is present, this formula is a "forced recalculation" formula. If a formula is marked as a "forced recalculation" formula, then it should be recalculated whenever one of its predecessors it depends on changes.

Expressed as a grammar in BNF notation, a formula is specified:

Formula ::= Intro? Expression

Intro ::= '=' ForceRecalc?

ForceRecalc ::= '='

The primary component of a formula is an Expression. Formulas are composed of Expressions, which may in turn be composed from other Expressions.

Expression ::=

 (

 Number |

 String |

 Array |

 PrefixOp Expression |

  Expression PostfixOp |

  Expression InfixOp Expression |

  '(' Expression ')' |

  FunctionName Whitespace* '(' ParameterList ')' |

 Reference |

 QuotedLabel |

 AutomaticIntersection |

 NamedExpression |

  Error

 ) Whitespace*

SingleQuoted ::= "'" ([^'] | "''")+ "'"

5.3 Constant Numbers

Constant numbers are written using '.' (FULL STOP, U+002E) dot as the decimal separator. Optional "E" or "e" denotes scientific notation. Syntactically, negative numbers are positive numbers with a prefix "-" (HYPHEN-MINUS, U+002D) operator. A constant number is of type Number.

Number ::= StandardNumber |

   '.' [0-9]+ ([eE] [-+]? [0-9]+)?

StandardNumber ::= [0-9]+ ('.' [0-9]+)? ([eE] [-+]? [0-9]+)?

Evaluators should be able to read the Number format, which accepts a decimal fraction that starts with decimal point '.' (FULL STOP, U+002E), without a leading zero. Evaluators shall write numbers only using the StandardNumber format, which requires a leading digit, and shall not write numbers with a leading '.' (FULL STOP, U+002E).

5.4 Constant Strings

Constant strings are surrounded by double-quote characters (QUOTATION MARK, U+0022); a literal double-quote character '"' (QUOTATION MARK, U+0022) as string content is escaped by duplicating it.  A constant string is of type Text.

String ::= '"' ([^"#x00] | '""')* '"'

5.5 Operators

Operators are functions with one or more parameters.

PrefixOp ::= '+' | '-'

PostfixOp ::= '%'

InfixOp ::= ArithmeticOp | ComparisonOp | StringOp | ReferenceOp

ArithmeticOp ::= '+' | '-' | '*' | '/' | '^'

ComparisonOp ::= '=' | '<>' | '<' | '>' | '<=' | '>='

StringOp ::= '&'

There are three predefined reference operators: reference intersection, reference concatenation, and range. The result of these operators may be a 3-dimensional range, with front-upper-left and back-lower-right corners, or even a list of such ranges in the case of cell concatenation.

ReferenceOp ::= IntersectionOp | ReferenceConcatenationOp | RangeOp

IntersectionOp ::= '!'

ReferenceConcatenationOp ::= '~'

RangeOp ::= ':'

Table 1 - Operators defines the associativity and precedence of operators, from highest to lowest precedence.

Table 1 - Operators

Associativity

Operator(s)

Comments

left

:

Range.

left

!

Reference intersection ([.A1:.C4]![.B1:.B5] is [.B1:.B4]). Displayed as the space character in some implementations.

left

~

Reference union.

Note: Displayed as the function parameter separator in some implementations.

right

+,-

Prefix unary operators, e.g., -5 or -[.A1]. Note that these have a different precedence than add and subtract.

left

%

Postfix unary operator % (divide by 100). Note that this is legal with expressions (e.g., [.B1]%).

left

^

Power (2 ^ 3 is 8).

left

*,/

Multiply, divide.

left

+,-

Binary operations add, subtract. Note that unary (prefix) + and - have a different precedence.

left

&

Binary operation string concatenation. Note that unary (prefix) + and - have a different precedence. Note that "&" shall be escaped when included in an XML document

left

=, <>, <, <=,
>, >=

Comparison operators equal to, not equal to, less than, less than or equal to, greater than, greater than or equal to

Note 1: Prefix “-” has a higher precedence than “^”, “^” is left-associative, and reference intersection has a higher precedence than reference union.

Note 2: Prefix “+” and “-“ are defined to be right-associative. However, note that typical applications which implement at most the operators defined in this specification (as specified) may implement them as left-associative, because the calculated results will be identical.

Note 3: Precedence can be overridden by using parentheses, so "=2+3*4" computes to 14 but "=(2+3)*4" computes 20. Implementations should retain "unnecessary" parentheses and white space, since these are added by people to improve readability.

5.6 Functions and Function Parameters

Functions are called by name, followed by parentheses surrounding a list of parameters. Parameters are separated using the semicolon ';' (SEMICOLON, U+003B) character:

FunctionName ::=  LetterXML (LetterXML | DigitXML |

  '_' | '.' | CombiningCharXML)*

Where LetterXML, DigitXML, and CombiningCharXML are Letter, Digit, and CombiningChar as they are defined in [XML1.0].

Function names are case-insensitive.

Function calls shall be given a parameter list, though it may be empty. An empty list of parameters is considered a call with 0 parameters, not a call with one parameter that happens to be empty. TRUE() is syntactically a function call with 0 parameters. It is syntactically legitimate to provide empty parameters, though functions need not accept empty parameters unless otherwise noted:

ParameterList ::= /* empty */ |

  Parameter (Separator EmptyOrParameter )* |

  Separator EmptyOrParameter /* First param empty */

  (Separator EmptyOrParameter )*

EmptyOrParameter ::= /* empty */ Whitespace* | Parameter

Parameter ::= Expression

Separator ::= ';'

5.7 Nonstandard Function Names

When writing a document using function(s) not defined in this specification, an evaluator shall include a prefix in such function names to identify the original definer of the function's semantics. When the origin of a function cannot be determined, producers may omit a prefix. Producers may use the prefix to differentiate between different definition types. Evaluators that do not support a function should compute its result as some Error value other than #N/A.

Note: Examples of implementation-defined functions include extension functions included with an implementation, user-defined functions written by users, and 3rd party functions distributed in libraries.

Note: Examples of such names include COM.MICROSOFT.CUBEMEMBER, ORG.OPENOFFICE.STYLE, ORG.GNUMERIC.RANDRAYLEIGH, and COM.LOTUS.V98.FOO.

Evaluators should avoid defining evaluator-unique functions beginning with a top-level domain name followed by a period. Evaluators should avoid defining application functions beginning with “NET.”, “COM.”, “ORG.”, or a country code followed by a period.

Evaluators that do not support a function should compute its result as some Error value other than #N/A.

5.8 References

References refer to a specific cell or set of cells. The syntax for a constant reference:

Reference ::= '[' (Source? RangeAddress) | ReferenceError ']'

RangeAddress ::=
 SheetLocatorOrEmpty '.' Column Row (':' '.' Column Row )? |
 SheetLocatorOrEmpty '.' Column ':' '.' Column |
 SheetLocatorOrEmpty '.' Row ':' '.' Row |
 SheetLocator '.' Column Row ':' SheetLocator '.' Column Row |
 SheetLocator '.' Column ':' SheetLocator '.' Column |
 SheetLocator '.' Row ':' SheetLocator '.' Row

SheetLocatorOrEmpty ::= SheetLocator | /* empty */

SheetLocator ::= SheetName ('.' SubtableCell)*

SheetName ::= QuotedSheetName | '$'? [^\]\. #$']+

QuotedSheetName ::= '$'? SingleQuoted

SubtableCell ::= ( Column Row ) | QuotedSheetName

ReferenceError ::= "#REF!"

Column ::= '$'? [A-Z]+

Row ::= '$'? [1-9] [0-9]*

Source ::= "'" IRI "'" "#"

CellAddress ::= SheetLocatorOrEmpty '.' Column Row /* Not used directly */

References always begin with '[' (LEFT SQUARE BRACKET, U+005B); this disambiguates cell addresses from function names and named expressions. SheetNames include single-quote“'” (APOSTROPHE, U+0027) characters by doubling them and having the entire name surrounded by single-quotes. Column labels shall be in uppercase. The syntax supports whole-row and whole-column references. A reference is of type Reference.

A ReferenceError provides information that a formula evaluates to an Error because of a particular reference having been invalidated by actions that occurred after the formula was validly created.

Columns are named by a sequence of one or more uppercase letters A-Z (U+0041 through U+005A).  Columns are named A, B, C, ... X, Y, Z, AA, AB, AC, ... AY, AZ, BA, BB, BC, ... ZX, ZY, ZZ, AAA, AAB, AAC, AAZ, ABA, ABB, and so on.

If a RangeAddress does not contain a Column element or does not contain a Row element, it specifies a cell rectangle (4.8 Reference). If it contains Row elements, the cell rectangle starts on the first column and ends on the last column the evaluator supports. If it contains Column elements, the cell rectangle starts on the first row and ends on the last row the evaluator supports.

If in a RangeAddress the first part (left of ':' colon) contains a SheetLocator and the second part (right of ':' colon) does not contain a SheetLocator, the second part inherits the SheetLocator from the first part.

If a RangeAddress contains two different SheetLocators, it specifies a cell cuboid (4.8 Reference).

If a RangeAddress contains no SheetLocator, the current sheet local to the position where the expression is evaluated is referred.

A reference with an explicit row or column value beyond the capabilities of an evaluator shall be computed as an Error, and not as a reference.

Note that references can include a single embedded “:” separator.  Evaluators should use references with embedded “:” separators inside the [..] markers, instead of the general-purpose “:” operator, when saving files, and, where there is a choice of cells to join, evaluators should choose the leftmost pair.

The optional Source expresses that the reference is to sheets and/or cells in a different location (possibly in a same-document fragment) from that for the formula in which the reference occurs. The optional Source is also used for locating Named Expressions (section 5.11).

The IRI portion of Source shall be an IRI reference [RFC3987] conforming to the general syntax IRI-reference rule (section 2.2 of [RFC3987]) after each pair of consecutive single-quote characters (APOSTROPHE, U+0027) is replaced by one single single-quote character.

Note: The escaping of single-quotes as paired single-quotes is because the IRI is enclosed in single quote characters of the Source.

Resolution of the [RFC3987] IRI reference is host-defined behavior. 3.4

5.9 Reference List

A reference list is the result of the Infix Operator Reference Concatenation 6.4.13 '~', the syntax is:

ReferenceList ::= Reference (Whitespace* ReferenceConcatenationOp Whitespace* Reference)*

A reference list can be passed as an argument to functions expecting a reference parameter where passing one reference results in an identical computation as an arbitrary sequence of single references occupying the identical cell range.  A reference list cannot be converted to an array.

5.10 Quoted Label

5.10.1 General

A quoted label is Text contained in a table as cell content, either literally or as a formula result.

QuotedLabel ::= SingleQuoted

A quoted label identifies a column or a row, depending on the label range in which its text appears.

5.10.2 Lookup of Defined Labels

For a QuotedLabel, first the cells defined in column label ranges (cell ranges of the table:label-cell-range-address attribute (OpenDocument Part 3, 19.660) in the elements <table:label-range> (OpenDocument Part 3, 9.4.9) with attribute table:orientation (OpenDocument Part 3, 19.690.4) set to column) are searched for the string content of QuotedLabel (without the quotes). If found, the corresponding column's range of the data cell range of the table:data-cell-range-address attribute (OpenDocument Part 3, 19.612) is taken as a reference. If not found, the cells defined in row label ranges (attribute table:orientation set to row) are searched and if found the corresponding row's range of the data cell range is taken. Label ranges of the current formula's sheet take precedence over label ranges of other sheets if a name occurs in both.

5.10.3 Automatic Lookup of Labels

For a QuotedLabel where no defined label is found, an automatic lookup is performed on the sheet where the formula cell resides, if that document setting is enabled (HOST-AUTOMATIC-FIND-LABELS value true ).

Matches to the upper left of the formula cell are preferred over other matches, followed by matches with a smaller distance. The following algorithm is used:

Cells on the same sheet as the formula cell are examined column-wise from left to right whether they contain the text of QuotedLabel (without the quotes). If more than one cell match, the distance and direction from the formula cell's position is taken into account. The distance is calculated by Distance= ColumnDifference*ColumnDifference+ RowDifference*Row Difference using an idealized layout of square cells. For the direction, during the run two independent match positions are remembered each time Distance is smaller than a previous Distance: Match2 for positions right of and/or below the formula position (FormulaColumn < MatchColumn || FormulaRow < MatchRow), Match1 for all others (not right of and not below). Match1 also holds the very first match, in case there is only one match or all matches are somewhere below or right of the formula cell. After having found the smallest distances the conditions are:

  1. 1.If Match1 has the smallest distance, that match is taken. 

  2. 2.Else, Match2 (right and/or below) has the smallest or an equal distance: 

    1. 2.1 A match to the upper left (FormulaColumn >= Match1Column && FormulaRow >= Match1Row) takes precedence over matches to other directions. 

    2. 2.2 Else, if there is no match to the upper left: 

      1. 2.2.1 If Match1 is somewhere right of the formula cell (FormulaColumn < Match1Column) it was the first match found in column-wise lookup. 

        1. 2.2.1.1 If Match2 is above the formula cell (FormulaRow >= Match2Row) it is to the upper right of the formula cell and either nearer than Match1 or Match1 is below. Match2 is taken. 

        2. 2.2.1.2 Else Match2 is below the formula cell and Match1 is taken. 

      2. 2.2.2 Else (Match1 not right of the formula cell => two matches below or below and right) the match with the smallest distance is taken. 

If the resulting cell is below or above another cell containing Text a row label is assumed, else a column label is assumed.

Note: Use of automatically looked up column or row labels in expressions impairs interoperability.

5.10.4 Implicit Intersection

For the reference resulting from a single QuotedLabel an implicit intersection is generated if the operator or function with which it is used expects a scalar value. The intersection is generated with the current formula's cell position, thus for a column label an intersection is generated with the formula cell's row, for a row label with the formula cell's column.

5.10.5 Automatic Range

When passed as a non-scalar argument (e.g. Array or NumberSequence) to a function, an automatically-looked-up column or row label (not defined label range) is converted to an automatic range reference that is adjusted each time the formula is interpreted. The range is generated from the column below a column label, or the row to the right of a row label, constructed by encompassing contiguous non-empty cells. An empty cell interrupts contiguousness, one empty cell directly below a column label cell or to the right of a row label cell is ignored.

Example:

Table 2 - Automatic Range

Row

Data

Expression

Result

Comment

1

Label

2

 

3

1

4

2

5

 

6

8

7

 

8

32

=SUM('Label')

3

Empty cell in row 2 is skipped (two empty cells in row 2 and 3 would not be skipped and would stop the automatic range), empty cell in row 5 stops the automatic range.

If any cell content is entered in row 5 the range is regenerated as follows:

Table 3 - Automatic Range

Row

Data

Expression

Result

Comment

1

Label

2

 

3

1

4

2

5

4

6

8

7

 

8

32

=SUM('Label')

15

Empty cell in row 2 is skipped, empty cell in row 7 stops the automatic range.

5.10.6 Automatic Intersection

An automatic intersection may be used to identify the intersection of two quoted labels. Note that this is different from the IntersectionOp, which takes two references instead of two labels:

AutomaticIntersection ::= QuotedLabel Whitespace* '!!' Whitespace* QuotedLabel

In an automatic intersection, one of the labels identifies a row, the other a column; they may be in either order. Each QuotedLabel is looked up as defined above under "Lookup of Defined Labels" and "Automatic Lookup of Labels". If two data cell ranges are found, the intersection of the column's data cell range and the row's data cell range is generated. If the intersection result is not exactly one cell, an Error is generated.

5.11 Named Expressions

A NamedExpression references another expression, possibly in a completely different spreadsheet or any other type of document that can be imported into a spreadsheet.

NamedExpression ::= SimpleNamedExpression |
 SheetLocalNamedExpression | ExternalNamedExpression

SimpleNamedExpression ::= Identifier |
 '$$' (Identifier | SingleQuoted)

SheetLocalNamedExpression ::=
 QuotedSheetName '.' SimpleNamedExpression

ExternalNamedExpression ::=
 Source (SimpleNamedExpression | SheetLocalNamedExpression)

Evaluators supporting named expressions shall support Simple Named Expressions that are global to all the sheets in a (spreadsheet) document in the current document. This is a named expression without a Source, QuotedSheetName, or SubtableCell. The type of a named expression is the type of the value that the named expression returns.

Named expressions are case-consistent, meaning that matching is done case-insensitive and identifiers can not differ ONLY in their case. Evaluators should write identifiers with identical case in all locations.

Evaluators may support Sheet-local Named Expressions that are local (attached) to individual sheets. In that case, a non-empty QuotedSheetName can be used to reference a sheet-specific named expression. The most specific named expression for a given expression is used. If the QuotedSheetName is empty, the search for the named expression begins with the current sheet, then up through the container(s) of the sheet (the same is true if the QuotedSheetName rule fragment is not included at all). If there is a non-empty QuotedSheetName, search begins with that named sheet, then up through its container(s) for the given name.

Note: There is no syntax for referencing a named expression without first looking at the current sheet's named expressions; where this is a problem, a user can define a blank sheet and reference that sheet as the starting location for finding the named expression.

If a sheetname is not empty, it shall be quoted using the single-quote character “'” (APOSTROPHE, U+0027). While both Source and QuotedSheetName can begin with the single-quote character, they are distinguished: after the closing single-quote character, a non-empty source shall have the '#' (NUMBER SIGN, U+0023) character as the next non-whitespace character; a non-empty sheetname shall be followed by the '.' (FULL STOP, U+002E) character as the next non-whitespace character.

Expressions should limit the names of their identifiers to only ([UNICODE]) letters, underscores, and digits, not including patterns that look like cell references or the words True or False.

Identifier ::= ( LetterXML

5.12 Constant Errors

Evaluators shall support the Error named #N/A. Evaluators may support other Errors. Evaluators may allow entry of errors directly, parse them and recognize them as Errors. Functions shall propagate Errors unless stated otherwise.

Error names shall have the following syntax:

Error ::= '#' [A-Z0-9]+ ([!?] | ('/' ([A-Z] | ([0-9] [!?]))))

Specific Errors are indicated by their corresponding names.

Table 4 is a list of Errors that are used by several existing implementations.

Table 4 - Possible Other Constant Error Names

Name

Comments

#DIV/0!

Attempt to divide by zero, including division by an empty cell. ERROR.TYPE of 2 6.13.11

#NAME?

Unrecognized/deleted name. ERROR.TYPE of 5.

#N/A

Not available. ISNA() applied to this value will return TRUE. Lookup functions which failed, and NA(), return this value. ERROR.TYPE of 7.

#NULL!

Intersection of ranges produced zero cells. ERROR.TYPE of 1.

#NUM!

Failed to meet domain constraints (e.g., input was too large or too small). ERROR.TYPE of 6.

#REF!

Reference to invalid cell (e.g., beyond the application’s abilities). ERROR.TYPE of 4.

#VALUE!

Parameter is wrong type. ERROR.TYPE of 3.

Evaluators may implement other Errors.

An unknown Error name shall be mapped into an Error supported by the evaluator when read (e.g., the application's equivalent of #NAME?), though an evaluator may warn the user if this has or will take place. It is desirable to preserve the original specific Error name when writing an Error back out, where possible, but for Errors other than #N/A evaluators may write a different Error for a formula than they did when reading it. Whitespace shall not be included in an Error name.

Evaluators should use a human-comprehensible name, not a numeric id, for Error names they write.

5.13 Inline Arrays

Inline arrays are enclosed with curly braces. Inside, they contain one or more rows, with each row separated by a row separator:

Array ::= '{' MatrixRow ( RowSeparator MatrixRow )* '}'

MatrixRow ::= Expression ( ';' Expression )*

RowSeparator ::= '|'

Evaluators that support inline arrays shall accept a matrix with one or more rows, each with one or more columns, with the same number of columns in each row, with constant values for each expression. Evaluators that do not support inline arrays, or cannot support a particular use permitted by this syntax, should compute an Error value for such arrays. An inline array is of type Array.

Note: Expression authors should be aware that use of Expression other than constant Number or constant String may impair interoperability.

5.14 Whitespace

Whitespace ::= #x20 | #x09 | #x0a | #x0d

For calculation purposes, whitespace is ignored unless it is inside the contents of string constants or text surrounded by single quotes. Evaluators shall ignore any whitespace characters before and/or after any operators, constant numbers, constant strings, constant errors, inline arrays, parentheses used for controlling precedence, and the closing parenthesis of a function call. Whitespace shall be ignored following the initial equal sign(s). Whitespace shall be ignored just before a function name, but whitespace shall not separate a function name from its initial opening parenthesis. Whitespace shall not be used in the interior of a terminating grammar rule (a rule that references no other rule other than character sets, internally or externally-defined), unless specifically permitted by the terminating grammar rule, since these rules define the lexical properties of a component. Evaluators shall not write formulas with whitespace embedded in any unquoted identifier, constant Number, or constant Error.  Evaluators shall treat SPACE (U+0020), CHARACTER TABULATION (U+0009), LINE FEED (U+000A), and CARRIAGE RETURN (U+000D) as whitespace characters.

An embedded line break shall be represented by a single LINE FEED character (U+000A), not by a carriage return-linefeed pair. When embedded in an XML attribute the linefeed character is represented as “&#x0A;”.

Evaluators should retain whitespace entered by the original formula creator and use it when saving or presenting the formula, and should not add additional whitespace unless directed to do so during the process of editing a formula.

6 Standard Operators and Functions

6.1 General

OpenFormula defines commonly used operators and functions.

Function names ignore case. Evaluators should write function names in all uppercase letters when writing OpenFormula formulas.

Unless otherwise noted, if any value being provided is an Error, the result is an Error; if more than one Error is provided, one of them is returned (evaluators should return the leftmost Error result).

6.2 Common Template for Functions and Operators

For every function or operator, the following are defined in this specification:

Evaluators may extend functions by permitting fewer or additional parameters, which documents may use. Extended functions may result in a lack of interoperability.

The implicit conversion operators omit many of these items, e.g., the syntax (since there is none).

6.3 Implicit Conversion Operators

6.3.1 General

Any given function or operand takes 0 or more parameters, and each of those parameters has an expected type. The expected type can be one of the base types, identified above. It can also be of some conversion type that controls conversion, e.g., Any means that no conversion is done (it can be of any type); NumberSequence causes a conversion to an ordered sequence of zero or more numbers. If the passed-in type does not match the expected type, an attempt is made to automatically convert the value to the expected type. An Error is returned if the type cannot be converted (this can never happen if the expected type is Any). Unless otherwise noted, any conversion operation applied to a value of type Error returns the same value.

6.3.2 Conversion to Scalar

To convert to a scalar, if the value is of type:

6.3.3 Implied intersection

In some cases a reference to a single cell is needed, but a reference to multiple cells is provided. In this case an "implied intersection" is performed. To perform an implied intersection:

6.3.4 Force to array context (ForceArray)

A ForceArray attribute forces calculation of the argument's expression into non-scalar array mode. This means that no implied intersection is performed, instead where a reference to a single cell is expected and multiple cells are provided, iteration over the multiple cells is performed and results are stored in an array that is passed on.

See also Non-Scalar Evaluation 3.3

6.3.5 Conversion to Number

If the expected type is Number, then if the value is of type:

6.3.6 Conversion to Integer

If the expected type is Integer for a function or operator, apply the “Conversion to Number” operation. 6.3.5 Then, if the result is a Number but not an integer, apply the specific conversion from Number to integer specified by that particular function/operator. If the function or operator does not specify any particular conversion operation, then the conversion from a non-integer Number into an integer is implementation-defined.

Many different conversions from a non-integer number into an integer are possible. The conversion direction may be towards negative infinity, towards positive infinity, towards zero, away from zero, towards the nearest even number, or towards the nearest odd number. A conversion can select the nearest integer, the nearest even or odd integer, or the “next” integer in the given direction if it is not already an integer. If a conversion selects the nearest integer, a direction is still needed (for when a value is halfway between two integers). In this specification, this conversion is referred to as “rounding” or “truncation”; these terms by themselves do not specify any specific operation.

If a function specifies its rounding operation using a series of capital letters, the function defined in this specification for that function is used to do the conversion to integer. Common such functions are:

6.3.7 Conversion to NumberSequence

If the expected type is NumberSequence, then if value is of type:

6.3.8 Conversion to NumberSequenceList

Identical to Conversion to NumberSequence 6.3.7, with the addition that instead of a Reference also a ReferenceList is accepted as argument. Each Reference in the list is converted to a NumberSequence in the order of occurrence.

6.3.9 Conversion to DateSequence

Identical to Conversion to NumberSequence 6.3.7 except that each element in the list represents a serial date value of subtype Date.

6.3.10 Conversion to Complex Number

An evaluator may accept complex numbers as Text, Number, or a different distinguishable type.

If the value is:

 ([+-]?Number [+-])?Number[ij]

 [+-]?Number[ij]

6.3.11 Conversion to ComplexSequence

If the expected type is ComplexSequence, then if value is of type:

6.3.12 Conversion to Logical

If the expected type is Logical, then if value is of type:

6.3.13 Conversion to LogicalSequence

If the expected type is LogicalSequence, then if value is of type:

6.3.14 Conversion to Text

If the expected type is Text, then if value is of type:

6.3.15 Conversion to DateParam

If the expected type is the pseudotype DateParam, then if value is of type:

6.3.16 Conversion to TimeParam

If the expected type is the pseudotype TimeParam, then if value is of type:

6.4 Standard Operators

6.4.1 General

The functions defined under standard operators differ from other functions only by their frequency of use. That frequency of use has lead to the colloquial terminology, standard operators.

6.4.2 Infix Operator "+"

Summary: Add two numbers.

Syntax: Number Left + Number Right

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Adds numbers together.

See also Infix Operator "-" 6.4.3, Prefix Operator "+" 6.4.15

6.4.3 Infix Operator "-"

Summary: Subtract the second number from the first.

Syntax: Number Left - Number Right

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Subtracts one number from another number.

See also Infix Operator "+" 6.4.2, Prefix Operator "-" 6.4.16

6.4.4 Infix Operator "*"

Summary: Multiply two numbers.

Syntax: Number Left * Number Right

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Multiplies numbers together.

See also Infix Operator "+" 6.4.2, Infix Operator "/" 6.4.5

6.4.5 Infix Operator "/"

Summary: Divide the first number by the second.

Syntax: Number Left / Number Right

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Divides numbers.  Dividing by zero returns an Error.

See also Infix Operator "-" 6.4.3, Infix Operator "*" 6.4.4

6.4.6 Infix Operator "^"

Summary: Exponentiation (Power).

Syntax: Number Left ^ Number Right

Returns: Number

Constraints: NOT(AND(Left=0; Right=0)); Evaluators may evaluate expressions where OR(Left != 0; Right != 0) evaluates to a non-Error value.

Semantics: Returns POWER(Left, Right).

See also Infix Operator "*" 6.4.4, AND 6.15.2, NOT 6.15.7, POWER 6.16.46

6.4.7 Infix Operator "="

Summary: Report if two values are equal

Syntax: Scalar Left = Scalar Right

Returns: Logical

Constraints: None

Semantics: Returns TRUE if two values are equal. If the values differ in type, return FALSE. If the values are both Number, return TRUE if they are considered equal, else return FALSE. If they are both Text, return TRUE if the two values match, else return FALSE. For Text values, if the calculation setting HOST-CASE-SENSITIVE is false, text is compared but characters differencing only in case are considered equal. If they are both Logicals, return TRUE if they are identical, else return FALSE. Error values cannot be compared to a constant Error value to determine if that is the same Error value.

Evaluators may approximate and test equality of two numeric values with an accuracy of the magnitude of the given values scaled by the number of available bits in the mantissa, ignoring some least significant bits and thus providing compensation for not exactly representable values.

The result of “1=TRUE()” is FALSE for evaluators that implement a distinct Logical type and TRUE if they don't.

See also Infix Operator "<>" 6.4.8

6.4.8 Infix Operator "<>"

Summary: Report if two values are not equal

Syntax: Any Left <> Any Right

Returns: Logical

Constraints: None

Semantics: Returns NOT(Left = Right) if Left and Right are not Error. For Text values, if the calculation setting HOST-CASE-SENSITIVE is false, text is compared but characters differencing only in case are considered equal.

If either Left and Right are an Error, the result is an Error; this operator cannot be used to determine if two Errors are the same kind of Error.

Note: In some user interfaces the infix operator “<>” is displayed (or accepted) as “!=” or “≠”.

See also Infix Operator "=" 6.4.7, NOT 6.15.7

6.4.9 Infix Operator Ordered Comparison ("<", "<=", ">", ">=")

Summary: Report if two values have the given order

Syntax: Scalar Left op Scalar Right

 where op is one of: "<", "<=", ">", or ">="

Returns: Logical

Constraints: None

Semantics: Returns TRUE if the two values are less than, less than or equal, greater than, or greater than or equal (respectively). If both Left and Right are Numbers, compare them as numbers. If both Left and Right are Text, compare them as text; if the calculation setting HOST-CASE-SENSITIVE is false, text is compared but characters are compared ignoring case. If the values are both Logical, convert both to Number and then compare as Number.

These functions return one of TRUE, FALSE, or an Error if Left and Right have different types, but it is implementation-defined which of these results will be returned when the types differ.

See also Infix Operator "<>" 6.4.8, Infix Operator "=" 6.4.7

6.4.10 Infix Operator "&"

Summary: Concatenate two strings.

Syntax: Text Left & Text Right

Returns: Text

Constraints: None

Semantics: Concatenates two text (string) values.

Note: The infix operator “&” is equivalent to CONCATENATE(Left,Right).

See also Infix Operator "+" 6.4.2, CONCATENATE 6.20.6

6.4.11 Infix Operator Reference Range (":")

Summary: Computes an inclusive range given two references

Syntax: Reference Left : Reference Right

Returns: Reference

Constraints: None

Semantics: Takes two references and computes the range, that is, a reference to the smallest 3-dimensional cube of cells that include both Left and Right including the cells on sheets positioned between Left and Right. Left and Right need not be a single cell. For an expression such as [.B4:.B5]:[.C5] the resulting range is B4:C5. In case Left and/or Right involve a reference list (result of operator reference union), the range is computed and extended for each element of the list(s).

Note: For example, (a,b,c,d denoting one reference each) (a~b):(c~d) computes a:b:c:d determining the outermost front-top-left and rear-bottom-right corners.

Left and Right may also be defined names or the result of a function returning a reference, such as INDIRECT.

See also Infix Operator Reference Union 6.4.13, Infix Operator Reference Intersection 6.4.12, INDIRECT 6.14.7

6.4.12 Infix Operator Reference Intersection ("!")

Summary: Compute the intersection of two references

Syntax: Reference Left ! Reference Right

Returns: Reference

Constraints: None

Semantics: Takes two references and computes the intersection - a reference to the intersection of cells in both Left and Right. If there are no cells in common, returns an Error.

If Left or Right are not of type Reference or ReferenceList, an Error shall be returned.

If Left and/or Right are reference lists (result of infix operator reference concatenation), the intersection is computed for each combination of Left and Right, producing a reference list of intersections.

Note 1: For example (a,b,c,d denoting one reference each):
(a~b)!(c~d) will compute (a!c)~(a!d)~(b!c)~(b!d)

If for a resulting intersection there are no cells in common, the element is ignored and omitted from the result list. If for all intersections there are no cells in common and the result list is empty, an Error is returned.

Note 2: Intersection is notated as "!" in OpenFormula format, but as a space character in some user interfaces.

See also Infix Operator Reference Union 6.4.13

6.4.13 Infix Operator Reference Concatenation ("~") (aka Union)

Summary: Concatenate two references

Syntax: Reference Left ~ Reference Right

Returns: ReferenceList

Constraints: None

Semantics: Takes two references and computes the "cell union", which is a concatenation of the reference Left followed by the reference Right. This is not the same as a union in set theory; duplicate references to cells are not removed. The resulting reference will have the number of areas, as reported by AREAS, as AREAS(Left)+AREAS(Right).

Note: Concatenation is notated as "~" in OpenFormula format, but as a comma or “+” in some user interfaces.

If Left or Right are not of type Reference or ReferenceList, an Error shall be returned.

Test Cases:

See also Infix Operator Reference Range 6.4.11, Infix Operator Reference Intersection 6.4.12, AREAS 6.13.2

6.4.14 Postfix Operator "%"

Summary: Divide the operand by 100

Syntax: Number Left %

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Computes Left / 100.

See also Prefix Operator "-" 6.4.16, Prefix Operator "+" 6.4.15

6.4.15 Prefix Operator "+"

Summary: No operation; returns its one argument.

Syntax: + Any Right

Returns: Any

Constraints: None

Semantics: Returns the value given to it. Note that this does not convert a value to the Number type. In fact, it does no conversion at all of a Number, Logical, or Text value - it returns the same Number, Logical, or Text value (respectively). The "+" applied to a reference may return the reference, or an Error.

See also Infix Operator "+" 6.4.2

6.4.16 Prefix Operator "-"

Summary: Negate its one argument.

Syntax: - Number Right

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Computes 0 - Right.

See also Infix Operator "-" 6.4.3

6.5 Matrix Functions

6.5.1 General

Matrix functions operate on matrices.

A matrix with M rows and N columns is defined by

A M × N = ( a 1 1 a 2 1 a N 1 a 1 2 a 2 2 a N 2 a 1 M a 2 M a M N )
 
The dimension subscript may be omitted, if the context allows it, i.e. A M × N = A
. Matrices are represented by upper-case letters. The elements of a matrix are denoted by the corresponding lower case letter and subscripts, which defines the row and column number.
Square matrices have the same number of rows and columns, i.e.
M = N
.
 

6.5.2 MDETERM

Summary: Calculates the determinant of a matrix.

Syntax: MDETERM( ForceArray Array A )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Only square matrices are allowed.

Semantics: Returns the determinant of matrix A. The determinant is defined by

det ( A N × N ) = P sgn ( P ) i = 1 N a ip i
 
where P denotes a permutation of the numbers 1, 2, ..., n and sgn ( P )
 

See also MINVERSE 6.5.3

6.5.3 MINVERSE

Summary: Returns the inverse of a matrix.

Syntax: MINVERSE( ForceArray Array A )

Returns: Array

Constraints: Only square matrices are allowed.

Semantics: Calculates the inverse A 1  of matrix A. The matrix A multiplied with its inverse A 1
results in the unity matrix of the same dimension as A:
 
A N × N A N × N 1 = A N × N 1 A N × N = 1 N × N
 

Invertible matrices have a non-zero determinant. If the matrix is not invertible, this function should return an Error value.

See also MDETERM 6.5.2

6.5.4 MMULT

Summary: Multiplies the matrices A and B.

Syntax: MMULT( ForceArray Array A ; ForceArray Array B )

Returns: Array

Constraints: COLUMNS(A) = ROWS(B)

Semantics: Returns the matrix product of the two matrices. The elements c mn
 
c mn = k = 1 K a m k b k n
 

See also COLUMNS 6.13.5, ROWS 6.13.30

6.5.5 MUNIT

Summary: Creates a unit matrix of a specified dimension N.

Syntax: MUNIT( Integer N )

Returns: Array

Constraints: The dimension has to be greater than zero.

Semantics: Creates the unit matrix (identity matrix) of dimension N.

1 N × N = ( 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 )
 

6.5.6 TRANSPOSE

Summary: Returns the transpose of a matrix.

Syntax: TRANSPOSE( Array A )

Returns: Array

Constraints: None

Semantics: Returns the transpose AT of a matrix A, i.e. rows and columns of the matrix are exchanged.

A M × N T = ( a 1 1 a 2 1 a M 1 a 1 2 a 2 2 a M 2 a 1 N a 2 N a M N ) N × M
 

6.6 Bit operation functions

6.6.1 General

Evaluators shall support unsigned integer values and results of at least 48 bits (values from 0 to 2^48-1 inclusive). Operations that receive or result in a value that cannot be represented within 48 bits are implementation-defined.

6.6.2 BITAND

Summary: Returns bitwise “and” of its parameters

Syntax: BITAND( Integer X ; Integer Y )

Returns: Number

Constraints:  X 0, Y 0

Semantics: Returns bitwise “and” of its parameters. In the result, each bit position is 1 if and only if all parameters' bits at that position are also 1; else it is 0.

See also BITOR 6.6.4, BITXOR 6.6.6, AND 6.15.2

6.6.3 BITLSHIFT

Summary: Returns left shift of value X by N bits (“<<”)

Syntax: BITLSHIFT( Integer X ; Integer N )

Returns: Number

Constraints: X 0

Semantics: Returns left shift of value X by N bit positions:

See also BITAND 6.6.2, BITXOR 6.6.6, BITRSHIFT 6.6.5

6.6.4 BITOR

Summary: Returns bitwise “or” of its parameters

Syntax: BITOR( Integer X ; Integer Y )

Returns: Number

Constraints: X 0, Y 0

Semantics: Returns bitwise “or” of its parameters. In the result, each bit position is 1 if any of its parameters' bits at that position are also 1; else it is 0.

See also BITAND 6.6.2, BITXOR 6.6.6, AND 6.15.2

6.6.5 BITRSHIFT

Summary: Returns right shift of value X by N bits (“>>”)

Syntax: BITRSHIFT( Integer X ; Integer N )

Returns: Number

Constraints: X 0

Semantics: Returns right shift of value X by N bit positions:

See also BITAND 6.6.2, BITXOR 6.6.6, BITLSHIFT 6.6.3, INT 6.17.2

6.6.6 BITXOR

Summary: Returns bitwise “exclusive or” of its parameters

Syntax: BITXOR( Integer X ; Integer Y )

Returns: Number

Constraints: X 0, Y 0

Semantics: Returns bitwise “exclusive or” (xor) of its parameters. In the result, each bit position is 1 if one or the other parameters' bits at that position are 1; else it is 0.

See also BITAND 6.6.2, BITOR 6.6.4, OR 6.15.8

6.7 Byte-position text functions

6.7.1 General

Byte-position text functions are like their equivalent ordinary text functions, but manipulate byte positions rather than a count of the number of characters.  Byte positions are integers that may depend on the specific text representation used by the implementation. Byte positions are by definition implementation-dependent and reliance upon them reduces interoperability.

The pseudotypes ByteLength and BytePosition are Integers, but their exact meanings and values are not further defined by this specification.

6.7.2 FINDB

Summary: Returns the starting position of a given text, using byte positions.

Syntax: FINDB( Text Search ; Text T [ ; BytePosition Start ] )

Returns: BytePosition

Semantics: The same as FIND, but using byte positions.

See also FIND 6.20.9 , LEFTB 6.7.3 , RIGHTB 6.7.7

6.7.3 LEFTB

Summary: Returns a selected number of text characters from the left, using a byte position.

Syntax: LEFTB( Text T [ ; ByteLength Length ] )

Returns: Text

Semantics: As LEFT, but using a byte position.

See also LEFT 6.20.12, RIGHT 6.20.19, RIGHTB 6.7.7

6.7.4 LENB

Summary: Returns the length of given text in units compatible with byte positions

Syntax: LENB( Text T )

Returns: ByteLength

Constraints: None.

Semantics: As LEN, but compatible with byte position values.

See also LEN 6.20.13, LEFTB 6.7.3, RIGHTB 6.7.7

6.7.5 MIDB

Summary: Returns extracted text, given an original text, starting position using a byte position, and length.

Syntax: MIDB( Text T ; BytePosition Start ; ByteLength Length )

Returns: Text

Constraints: Length 0.

Semantics: As MID, but using byte positions.

See also MID 6.20.15, LEFTB 6.7.3, RIGHTB 6.7.7, REPLACEB 6.7.6

6.7.6 REPLACEB

Summary: Returns text where an old text is replaced with a new text, using byte positions.

Syntax: REPLACEB( Text T ; BytePosition Start ; ByteLength Len ; Text New )

Returns: Text

Semantics: As REPLACE, but using byte positions.

See also REPLACE 6.20.17, LEFTB 6.7.3, RIGHTB 6.7.7, MIDB 6.7.5, SUBSTITUTE 6.20.21

6.7.7 RIGHTB

Summary: Returns a selected number of text characters from the right, using byte position.

Syntax: RIGHTB( Text T [ ; ByteLength Length ] )

Returns: Text

Semantics: As RIGHT, but using byte positions.

See also RIGHT 6.20.19, LEFTB 6.7.3

6.7.8 SEARCHB

Summary: Returns the starting position of a given text, using byte positions.

Syntax: SEARCHB( Text Search ; Text T [ ; BytePosition Start ] )

Returns: BytePosition

Semantics: As SEARCH, but using byte positions.

See also SEARCH 6.20.20, EXACT 6.20.8, FIND 6.20.9, FINDB 6.7.2

6.8 Complex Number Functions

6.8.1 General

Functions for complex numbers.

6.8.2 COMPLEX

Summary: Creates a complex number from a given real coefficient and imaginary coefficient.

Syntax: COMPLEX( Number Real ; Number Imaginary [ ; Text Suffix ] )

Returns: Complex

Constraints: None

Semantics: Constructs a complex number from the given coefficients. The third parameter Suffix is optional, and should be either “i” or “j”. Upper case “I” or “J” are not accepted for the suffix parameter.

6.8.3 IMABS

Summary: Returns the absolute value of a complex number.

Syntax: IMABS( Complex X )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: If X = a + bi or X = a + bj, the absolute value = a 2 + b 2
 

See also IMARGUMENT 6.8.5

6.8.4 IMAGINARY

Summary: Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number.

Syntax: IMAGINARY( Complex X )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: If X = a + bi or X = a + bj, then the imaginary coefficient is b.

See also IMREAL 6.8.19

6.8.5 IMARGUMENT

Summary: Returns the complex argument of a complex number.

Syntax: IMARGUMENT( Complex X )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: If X = a + bi = r(cosφ + isinφ), a or b is not 0 and -π < φ ≤ π, then the complex argument is φ. φ is expressed by radians. If X = 0, then IMARGUMENT(X) is implementation-defined and either 0 or an error.

See also IMABS 6.8.3

6.8.6 IMCONJUGATE

Summary: Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number.

Syntax: IMCONJUGATE( Complex X )

Returns: Complex

Constraints: None

Semantics: If X = a + bi, then the complex conjugate is a - bi.

6.8.7 IMCOS

Summary: Returns the cosine of a complex number.

Syntax: IMCOS( Complex X )

Returns: Complex

Constraints: None

Semantics: If X = a + bi, then cos(X) = cos(a)cosh(b) - sin(a)sinh(b)i.

See also IMSIN 6.8.20

6.8.8 IMCOSH

Summary: Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number.

Syntax: IMCOSH( Complex N )

Returns: Complex

Constraints: None

Semantics: If N = a + bi, then cosh(N) = cosh(a)cos(b) + sinh(a)sin(b)i.

6.8.9 IMCOT

Summary: Returns the cotangent of a complex number.

Syntax: IMCOT(Complex N)

Returns: Complex

Constraints: None

Semantics: Equivalent to the following (except N is computed only once):

 IMDIV(IMCOS(N);IMSIN(N))

See also IMCOS 6.8.7, IMDIV 6.8.12, IMSIN 6.8.20, IMTAN 6.8.27

6.8.10 IMCSC

Summary: Returns the cosecant of a complex number.

Syntax: IMCSC(Complex N)

Returns: Complex

Constraints: None

Semantics: Equivalent to the following:

 IMDIV(1;IMSIN(N))

See also IMDIV 6.8.12, IMSIN 6.8.20

6.8.11 IMCSCH

Summary: Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number.

Syntax: IMCSCH( Complex N )

Returns: Complex

Constraints: None

Semantics: Computes the hyperbolic cosecant. This is equivalent to:

 IMDIV(1;IMSINH(N))

See also IMSINH 6.8.21, CSCH 6.16.24

6.8.12 IMDIV

Summary: Divides the first number by the second.

Syntax: IMDIV( Complex X ; Complex Y )

Returns: Complex

Constraints: None

Semantics: Given X = a + bi and Y = c + di, return the quotient

( ac + bd ) + ( bc ad ) i ( c 2 + d 2 )
 

Division by zero returns an Error.

See also IMDIV 6.8.12

6.8.13 IMEXP

Summary: Returns the exponent of e and a complex number.

Syntax: IMEXP( Complex X )

Returns: Complex

Constraints: None

Semantics: If X = a + bi, the result is e a ( cos b + i sin b )
 

See also IMLN 6.8.14

6.8.14 IMLN

Summary: Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number.

Syntax: IMLN( Complex X )

Returns: Complex

Constraints: X 0

Semantics: COMPLEX(LN(IMABS(X)); IMARGUMENT(X)) .

See also COMPLEX 6.8.2, IMABS 6.8.3, IMARGUMENT 6.8.5, IMEXP 6.8.13 , IMLOG10 6.8.15, LN 6.16.39

6.8.15 IMLOG10

Summary: Returns the common logarithm of a complex number.

Syntax: IMLOG10( Complex X )

Returns: Complex

Constraints: X 0

Semantics: IMLOG10(X) is IMDIV(IMLN(X);COMPLEX(LN(10);0)) .

See also COMPLEX 6.8.2, IMDIV 6.8.12, IMLN 6.8.14 , IMPOWER 6.8.17, LN 6.16.39

6.8.16 IMLOG2

Summary: Returns the binary logarithm of a complex number.

Syntax: IMLOG2( Complex X )

Returns: Complex

Constraints: X 0

Semantics: IMLOG2(X) is IMDIV(IMLN(X);COMPLEX(LN(2);0)) .

See also COMPLEX 6.8.2, IMDIV 6.8.12, IMLN 6.8.14 , IMPOWER 6.8.17, LN 6.16.39

6.8.17 IMPOWER

Summary: Returns the complex number X raised to the Yth power.

Syntax: IMPOWER( Complex X ; Complex Y ) or IMPOWER( Complex X ; Number Y)

Returns: Complex

Constraints: X 0

Semantics: IMPOWER(X;Y) is IMEXP(IMPRODUCT(Y; IMLN(X)))

An evaluator implementing this function shall permit any Number Y but may also allow any Complex Y.

See also IMEXP 6.8.13, IMLN 6.8.14, IMPOWER 6.8.17, IMPRODUCT 6.8.18

6.8.18 IMPRODUCT

Summary: Returns the product of complex numbers.

Syntax: IMPRODUCT( { ComplexSequence N }+ )

Returns: Complex

Constraints: None

Semantics: Multiply the complex numbers together. Given two complex numbers X = a + bi and
Y = c + di, the product X * Y = (ac - bd) + (ad + bc)i

See also IMDIV 6.8.12

6.8.19 IMREAL

Summary: Returns the real coefficient of a complex number.

Syntax: IMREAL( Complex N )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: If N = a + bi or N = a + bj, then the real coefficient is a.

See also IMAGINARY 6.8.4

6.8.20 IMSIN

Summary: Returns the sine of a complex number.

Syntax: IMSIN( Complex N )

Returns: Complex

Constraints: None

Semantics: If N = a + bi, then sin(N) = sin(a)cosh(b) + cos(a)sinh(b)i.

See also IMCOS 6.8.7

6.8.21 IMSINH

Summary: Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number.

Syntax: IMSINH( Complex N )

Returns: Complex

Constraints: None

Semantics: If N = a + bi, then sinh(N) = sinh(a)cos(b) + cosh(a)sin(b)i.

6.8.22 IMSEC

Summary: Returns the secant of a complex number.

Syntax: IMSEC(Complex N )

Returns: Complex

Constraints: None

Semantics: Equivalent to the following:

 IMDIV(1;IMCOS(N))

See also IMCOS 6.8.7, IMDIV 6.8.12

6.8.23 IMSECH

Summary: Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number.

Syntax: IMSECH( Complex N )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Computes the hyperbolic secant. This is equivalent to:

 IMDIV(1;IMCOSH(N))

See also IMCOSH 6.8.8, IMDIV 6.8.12, SECH 6.16.57

6.8.24 IMSQRT

Summary: Returns the square root of a complex number.

Syntax: IMSQRT( Complex N )

Returns: Complex

Constraints: None

Semantics: If N = 0 + 0i, then IMSQRT(N) = 0. Otherwise IMSQRT(N) is
SQRT(IMABS(N)) * sin(IMARGUMENT(N) / 2) + SQRT(IMABS(N)) * cos(IMARGUMENT(N) / 2)i.

See also IMABS 6.8.3, IMARGUMENT 6.8.5, IMPOWER 6.8.17, SQRT 6.16.58

6.8.25 IMSUB

Summary: Subtracts the second complex number from the first.

Syntax: IMSUB( Complex X ; Complex Y )

Returns: Complex

Constraints: None

Semantics: Subtract complex number Y from X.

See also IMSUM 6.8.26

6.8.26 IMSUM

Summary: Sums (add) a set of complex numbers, including all numbers in ranges.

Syntax: IMSUM( { ComplexSequence N }+ )

Returns: Complex

Constraints: None

Semantics: Adds complex numbers together. Text that cannot be converted to a complex number is ignored.

It is implementation-defined what happens if this function is given zero parameters; an evaluator may either produce an Error or the Number 0 if it is given zero parameters.

See also IMSUB 6.8.25

6.8.27 IMTAN

Summary: Returns the tangent of a complex number

Syntax: IMTAN(Complex N)

Returns: Complex

Constraints: None

Semantics: Equivalent to the following (except N is computed only once):

 IMDIV(IMSIN(N);IMCOS(N))

See also IMDIV 6.8.12, IMSIN 6.8.20, IMCOS 6.8.7, IMCOT 6.8.25

6.9 Database Functions

6.9.1 General

Database functions use the variables, Database 4.11.9, Field 4.11.10, and Criteria 4.11.11.

The results of database functions may change when the values of the HOST-USE-REGULAR-EXPRESSIONS or HOST-USE-WILDCARDS or HOST-SEARCH-CRITERIA-MUST-APPLY-TO-WHOLE-CELL properties change. 3.4

6.9.2 DAVERAGE

Summary: Finds the average of values in a given field from the records (rows) in a database that match a search criteria.

Syntax: DAVERAGE( Database D ; Field F ; Criteria C )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Perform AVERAGE on data records in database D field F that match criteria C.

See also AVERAGE 6.18.3, COUNT 6.13.6, DSUM 6.9.11, DCOUNT 6.9.3, SUM 6.16.61

6.9.3 DCOUNT

Summary: Counts the number of records (rows) in a database that match a search criteria and contain numerical values.

Syntax: DCOUNT( Database D ; [ Field F ] ; Criteria C )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Perform COUNT on data records in database D field F that match criteria C. If the Field argument is omitted, DCOUNT returns the count of all records that satisfy Criteria C.

See also COUNT 6.13.6, COUNTA 6.13.7, DCOUNTA 6.9.4, DSUM 6.9.11

6.9.4 DCOUNTA

Summary: Counts the number of records (rows) in a database that match a search criteria and contain values (as COUNTA).

Syntax: DCOUNTA( Database D ; [ Field F ] ; Criteria C )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Perform COUNTA on data records in database D field F that match criteria C. If the Field argument is omitted, DCOUNTA returns the count of all records that satisfy criteria C.

See also COUNT 6.13.6, COUNTA 6.13.7, DCOUNT 6.9.3, DSUM 6.9.11

6.9.5 DGET

Summary: Gets the single value in the field from the single record (row) in a database that matches a search criteria.

Syntax: DGET( Database D ; Field F ; Criteria C )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Extracts the value in field F of the one data record in database D that matches criteria C. If no records match, or more than one matches, it returns an Error.

See also DMAX 6.9.6, DMIN 6.9.7, DSUM 6.9.11

6.9.6 DMAX

Summary: Finds the maximum value in a given field from the records (rows) in a database that match a search criteria.

Syntax: DMAX( Database D ; Field F ; Criteria C )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Perform MAX on only the data records in database D field F that match criteria C.

See also MAX 6.18.45, DMIN 6.9.7, MIN 6.18.48

6.9.7 DMIN

Summary: Finds the minimum value in a given field from the records (rows) in a database that match a search criteria.

Syntax: DMIN( Database D ; Field F ; Criteria C )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Perform MIN on only the data records in database D field F that match criteria C.

See also MIN 6.18.48, DMAX 6.9.6, MAX 6.18.45

6.9.8 DPRODUCT

Summary: Finds the product of values in a given field from the records (rows) in a database that match a search criteria.

Syntax: DPRODUCT( Database D ; Field F ; Criteria C )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Multiply together only the data records in database D field F that match criteria C.

See also SUM 6.16.61, DSUM 6.9.11

6.9.9 DSTDEV

Summary: Finds the sample standard deviation in a given field from the records (rows) in a database that match a search criteria.

Syntax: DSTDEV( Database D ; Field F ; Criteria C )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Perform STDEV on only the data records in database D field F that match criteria C.

See also STDEV 6.18.72, DSTDEVP 6.9.10

6.9.10 DSTDEVP

Summary: Finds the population standard deviation in a given field from the records (rows) in a database that match a search criteria.

Syntax: DSTDEVP( Database D ; Field F ; Criteria C )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Perform STDEVP on only the data records in database D field F that match criteria C.

See also STDEVP 6.18.74, DSTDEV 6.9.9

6.9.11 DSUM

Summary: Finds the sum of values in a given field from the records (rows) in a database that match a search criteria.

Syntax: DSUM( Database D ; Field F ; Criteria C )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Perform SUM on only the data records in database D field F that match criteria C.

See also SUM 6.16.61, DMIN 6.9.7, DMAX 6.9.6

6.9.12 DVAR

Summary: Finds the sample variance in a given field from the records (rows) in a database that match a search criteria.

Syntax: DVAR( Database D ; Field F ; Criteria C )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Perform VAR on only the data records in database D field F that match criteria C.

See also VAR 6.18.82, DVARP 6.9.13

6.9.13 DVARP

Summary: Finds the population variance in a given field from the records (rows) in a database that match a search criteria.

Syntax: DVARP( Database D ; Field F ; Criteria C )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Perform VARP on only the data records in database D field F that match criteria C.

See also VARP 6.18.84, DVAR 6.9.12

6.10 Date and Time Functions

6.10.1 General

6.10.2 DATE

Summary: Constructs a date from year, month, and day of month.

Syntax: DATE( Integer Year ; Integer Month ; Integer Day )

Returns: Date

Constraints: 1904 Year 9956; 1 Month 12; 1 Day 31; Evaluators may evaluate expressions that do no meet this constraint.

Semantics: This computes the date's serial number given Year, Month, and Day of the Gregorian calendar. Fractional values are truncated. Month > 12 and Day > days of Month will roll over the date, computing the result by adding months and days as necessary. The value of the serial number depends on the current epoch.

See also TIME 6.10.17, DATEVALUE 6.10.4

6.10.3 DATEDIF

Summary: Returns the difference in years, months, or days of two date numbers.

Syntax: DATEDIF( DateParam StartDate ; DateParam EndDate ; Text Format )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Compute difference of StartDate and EndDate, in the units given by Format.

The Format is a code from the following table, entered as text, that specifies the format you want the result of DATEDIF to have.

Table 5 - DATEDIF

Format

Returns the number of

y

Years

m

Months. If there is not a complete month between the dates, 0 will be returned.

d

Days

md

Days, ignoring months and years

ym

Months, ignoring years

yd

Days, ignoring years

See also DAYS360 6.10.7, DAYS 6.10.6, Infix Operator “-” 6.4.3

6.10.4 DATEVALUE

Summary: Returns the date serial number from given text.

Syntax: DATEVALUE( Text D )

Returns: Date

Constraints: None

Semantics: This computes the serial number of the text string D, using the current locale. This function shall accept ISO date format (YYYY-MM-DD), which is locale-independent. It is semantically equal to VALUE(Date), if Date has a date format, since text matching a date format is automatically converted to a serial number when used as a Number. If the text of D has a combined date and time format, e.g. YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS, the integer part of the date serial number is returned. If the text of D does not have a date or time format, an evaluator may return an Error. See VALUE for more information on date formats. The value of the serial number depends on the current epoch.

See also TIME 6.10.17, DATE 6.10.2, TIMEVALUE 6.10.18, VALUE 6.13.34

6.10.5 DAY

Summary: Returns the day from a date.

Syntax: DAY( DateParam D )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Returns the day portion of D.

See also MONTH 6.10.13, YEAR 6.10.23

6.10.6 DAYS

Summary: Returns the number of days between two dates

Syntax: DAYS( DateParam EndDate ; DateParam StartDate )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Returns the number of days between two dates. If StartDate and EndDate are Numbers, this is EndDateStartDate. If they are both Text, this is DATEVALUE(StartDate) – DATEVALUE(EndDate).

See also DATEDIF 6.10.3, DATEVALUE 6.10.4, DAYS360 6.10.7, MONTH 6.10.13, YEAR 6.10.23, Infix Operator “-” 6.4.3

6.10.7 DAYS360

Summary: Returns the number of days between two dates using the 360-day year

Syntax: DAYS360( DateParam StartDate ; DateParam EndDate [ ; Logical Method = FALSE ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: If Method is FALSE, it uses the National Association of Securities Dealers (NASD) method, also known as the U.S. method. If Method is TRUE, the European method is used.

The US/NASD method (30US/360):

  1. 1.Truncate date values, set sign = 1. 

  2. 2.If StartDate's day-of-month is 31, it is changed to 30. 

  3. 3.Otherwise, if StartDate's day-of-month is the last day of February, it is changed to 30. 

  4. 4.If EndDate's day-of-month is 31 and StartDate's day-of-month is 30 (after having applied a change for #2 or #3, if necessary), EndDate's day-of-month is changed to 30. 

    Note 1: This calculation is slightly different from Basis 0 (4.11.7 Basis). Dates are never swapped. 

The European method (30E/360):

  1. 1.Truncate date values, set sign = 1. 

  2. 2.If StartDate is after EndDate then swap dates and set sign = -1. 

  3. 3.If StartDate's day-of-month is 31, it is changed to 30. 

  4. 4.If EndDate's day-of-month is 31, it is changed to 30. 

    Note 2: Days in February are never changed. 

    Note 3: This calculation is identical to Basis 4 (4.11.7 Basis) 

For both methods the value then returned is
sign * ((EndDate.year * 360 + EndDate.month * 30 + EndDate.day) – (StartDate.year * 360 + StartDate.month * 30 + StartDate.day))

See also DAYS 6.10.6, DATEDIF 6.10.3

6.10.8 EDATE

Summary: Returns the serial number of a given date when MonthAdd months is added

Syntax: EDATE( DateParam StartDate ; Number MonthAdd )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: First truncate StartDate and MonthAdd, then add MonthAdd number of months. MonthAdd can be positive, negative, or 0; if zero, the number representing StartDate (in the current epoch) is returned.

If after adding the given number of months, the day of month in the new month is larger than the number of days in the given month, the day of month is adjusted to the last day of the new month. Then the serial number of that date is returned.

See also DAYS 6.10.6, DATEDIF 6.10.3, EOMONTH 6.10.9

6.10.9 EOMONTH

Summary: Returns the serial number of the end of a month, given date plus MonthAdd months

Syntax: EOMONTH( DateParam StartDate ; Integer MonthAdd

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: First truncate StartDate and MonthAdd, then add MonthAdd number of months. MonthAdd can be positive, negative, or 0. Then return the serial number representing the end of that month. Due to the semantics of this function, the value of DAY(StartDate) is irrelevant.

See also DAY 6.10.5, EDATE 6.10.8

6.10.10 HOUR

Summary: Extracts the hour (0 through 23) from a time.

Syntax: HOUR( TimeParam T )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Extract from T the hour value, 0 through 23, as per a 24-hour clock. This is equal to:

DayFraction = (T - INT(T))

Hour = INT(DayFraction * 24)

See also MONTH 6.10.13, DAY 6.10.5, MINUTE 6.10.12, SECOND 6.10.16, INT 6.17.2

6.10.11 ISOWEEKNUM

Summary: Determines the ISO week number of the year for a given date.

Syntax: ISOWEEKNUM( DateParam D )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Returns the ordinal number of the [ISO8601] calendar week in the year for the given date D. ISO 8601 defines the calendar week as a time interval of seven calendar days starting with a Monday, and the first calendar week of a year as the one that includes the first Thursday of that year.

See also DAY 6.10.5, MONTH 6.10.13, YEAR 6.10.23, WEEKDAY 6.10.20, WEEKNUM 6.10.21

6.10.12 MINUTE

Summary: Extracts the minute (0 through 59) from a time.

Syntax: MINUTE( TimeParam T )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Extract from T the minute value, 0 through 59, as per a clock. This is equal to:

DayFraction = (T - INT(T))

HourFraction = (DayFraction * 24 - INT(DayFraction * 24))

Minute = INT(HourFraction * 60)

See also MONTH 6.10.13, DAY 6.10.5, HOUR 6.10.10, SECOND 6.10.16, INT 6.17.2

6.10.13 MONTH

Summary: Extracts the month from a date.

Syntax: MONTH( DateParam Date )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Takes Date and returns the month portion.

See also YEAR 6.10.23, DAY 6.10.5

6.10.14 NETWORKDAYS

Summary: Returns the whole number of work days between two dates.

Syntax: NETWORKDAYS( DateParam Date1 ; DateParam Date2 [ ; [ DateSequence Holidays ] [ ; LogicalSequence Workdays ] ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Returns the whole number of work days between two dates.

Work days are defined as non-weekend, non-holiday days. By default, weekends are Saturdays and Sundays and there are no holidays.

The optional 3rd parameter Holidays can be used to specify a list of dates to be treated as holidays. Note that this parameter can be omitted as an empty parameter (two consecutive ;; semicolons) to be able to pass the set of Workdays without Holidays.

The optional 4th parameter Workdays can be used to specify a different definition for the standard work week by passing in a list of numbers which define which days of the week are workdays (indicated by 0) or not (indicated by non-zero) in order Sunday, Monday,...,Saturday. So, the default definition of the work week excludes Saturday and Sunday and is: {1;0;0;0;0;0;1}. To define the work week as excluding Friday and Saturday, the third parameter would be: {0;0;0;0;0;1;1}.

6.10.15 NOW

Summary: Returns the serial number of the current date and time.

Syntax: NOW()

Returns: DateTime

Constraints: None

Semantics: This returns the current day and time serial number, using the current locale. If you want only the serial number of the current day, use TODAY 6.10.19.

See also DATE 6.10.2, TIME 6.10.17, TODAY 6.10.19

6.10.16 SECOND

Summary: Extracts the second (the integer 0 through 59) from a time. This function presumes that leap seconds never exist.

Syntax: SECOND( TimeParam T )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Extract from T the second value, 0 through 59, as per a clock. Note that this returns an integer, without a fractional part. Note also that this rounds to the nearest second, instead of returning the integer part of the seconds. This is equal to:

DayFraction = (T - INT(T))

HourFraction = (DayFraction * 24 - INT(DayFraction * 24))

MinuteFraction = (HourFraction * 60 - INT(HourFraction * 60))

Second = ROUND(MinuteFraction * 60)

See also MONTH 6.10.13, DAY 6.10.5, HOUR 6.10.10, MINUTE 6.10.12, INT 6.17.2

6.10.17 TIME

Summary: Constructs a time value from hours, minutes, and seconds.

Syntax: TIME( Number Hours ; Number Minutes ; Number Seconds )

Returns: Time

Constraints: None. Evaluators may first perform INT() on the hour, minute, and second before doing the calculation.

Semantics: Returns the fraction of the day consumed by the given time, i.e.:

((Hours * 60 * 60) + (Minutes * 60) + Seconds) / (24 * 60 * 60)

Time is a subtype of Number, where a time value of 1 = 1 day = 24 hours.

Hours, Minutes, and Seconds may be any number (they shall not be limited to the ranges 0..24, 0..59, or 0..60 respectively).

See also DATE 6.10.2, INT 6.17.2

6.10.18 TIMEVALUE

Summary: Returns a time serial number from given text.

Syntax: TIMEVALUE( Text T )

Returns: Time

Constraints: None

Semantics: This computes the serial number of the text string T, which is a time, using the current locale. This function shall accept ISO time format (HH:MM:SS), which is locale-independent. If the text of T has a combined date and time format, e.g. YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS, the fractional part of the date serial number is returned. If the text of T does not have a time format, an evaluator may attempt to convert the number another way (e.g., using VALUE), or it may return an Error (this is implementation-dependent).

See also TIME 6.10.17, DATE 6.10.2, DATEVALUE 6.10.4, VALUE 6.13.34

6.10.19 TODAY

Summary: Returns the serial number of today.

Syntax: TODAY()

Returns: Date

Constraints: None

Semantics: This returns the current day's serial number, using current locale. This only returns the date, not the datetime value.  For the specific time of day as well, use NOW 6.10.15.

See also TIME 6.10.17, NOW 6.10.15

6.10.20 WEEKDAY

Summary: Extracts the day of the week from a date; if text, uses current locale to convert to a date.

Syntax: WEEKDAY( DateParam D [ ; Integer Type = 1 ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Returns the day of the week from a date D, as a number from 0 through 7. The exact meaning depends on the value of Type:

  1. 1.When Type is 1, Sunday is the first day of the week, with value 1; Saturday has value 7. 

  2. 2.When Type is 2, Monday is the first day of the week, with value 1; Sunday has value 7. 

  3. 3.When Type is 3, Monday is the first day of the week, with value 0; Sunday has value 6. 

  4. 4.When Type is 11, Monday is the first day of the week, with value 1; Sunday has value 7. 

  5. 5.When Type is 12, Tuesday is the first day of the week, with value 1; Monday has value 7. 

  6. 6.When Type is 13, Wednesday is the first day of the week, with value 1; Tuesday has value 7. 

  7. 7.When Type is 14, Thursday is the first day of the week, with value 1; Wednesday has value 7. 

  8. 8.When Type is 15, Friday is the first day of the week, with value 1; Thursday has value 7. 

  9. 9.When Type is 16, Saturday is the first day of the week, with value 1; Friday has value 7. 

  10. 10. When Type is 17, Sunday is the first day of the week, with value 1; Saturday has value 7. 

Table 6 - WEEKDAY

Weekday Type

1

2

3

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

Sunday

1

7

6

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

Monday

2

1

0

1

7

6

5

4

3

2

Tuesday

3

2

1

2

1

7

6

5

4

3

Wednesday

4

3

2

3

2

1

7

6

5

4

Thursday

5

4

3

4

3

2

1

7

6

5

Friday

6

5

4

5

4

3

2

1

7

6

Saturday

7

6

5

6

5

4

3

2

1

7

See also DAY 6.10.5, MONTH 6.10.13, YEAR 6.10.23

6.10.21 WEEKNUM

Summary: Determines the week number of the year for a given date.

Syntax: WEEKNUM( DateParam D [ ; Number Mode = 1 ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: 1 ≤ Mode ≤ 2, or 11 ≤ Mode ≤ 17, or Mode = 21, or Mode = 150

Semantics: Returns the number of the week in the year for the given date.

For Mode = {1, 2, 11, 12, ..., 17} the week containing January 1 is the first week of the year, and is numbered week 1. The week starts on {Sunday, Monday, Monday, Tuesday, ..., Sunday}.

Mode 21 and Mode 150 are both [ISO8601], the week starts on Monday and the week containing the first Thursday of the year is the first week of the year, and is numbered week 1.

See also DAY 6.10.5, MONTH 6.10.13, YEAR 6.10.23, WEEKDAY 6.10.20, ISOWEEKNUM 6.10.11

6.10.22 WORKDAY

Summary: Returns the date serial number which is a specified number of work days before or after an input date.

Syntax: WORKDAY( DateParam Date ; Number Offset [ ; [ DateSequence Holidays ] [ ; LogicalSequence Workdays ] ] )

Returns: DateTime

Constraints: None

Semantics: Returns the date serial number for the day that is offset from the input Date parameter by the number of work days specified in the Offset parameter. If Offset is negative, the offset will return a date prior to Date. If Offset is positive, a date later Date is returned. If Offset is zero, then Date is returned.

Work days are defined as non-weekend, non-holiday days. By default, weekends are Saturdays and Sundays and there are no holidays.

The optional 3rd parameter Holidays can be used to specify a list of dates to be treated as holidays. Note that this parameter can be omitted as an empty parameter (two consecutive ;; semicolons) to be able to pass the set of Workdays without Holidays.

The optional 4th parameter Workdays can be used to specify a different definition for the standard work week by passing in a list of numbers which define which days of the week are workdays (indicated by 0) or not (indicated by non-zero) in order Sunday, Monday,...,Saturday. If all seven numbers in Workdays are non-zero and Offset is also non-zero, WORKDAY returns an error.

Note: The default definition of the work week that excludes Saturday and Sunday and is: {1;0;0;0;0;0;1}. To define the workweek as excluding Friday and Saturday, the third parameter would be: {0;0;0;0;0;1;1}.

6.10.23 YEAR

Summary: Extracts the year from a date given in the current locale of the evaluator.

Syntax: YEAR( DateParam D )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Parses a date-formatted string in the current locale's format and returns the year portion.

If a year is given as a two-digit number, as in "05-21-15", then the year returned is either 1915 or 2015, depending upon the break point in the calculation context.  In an OpenDocument document, this break point is determined by HOST-NULL-YEAR.

Evaluators shall support extracting the year from a date beginning in 1900. Three-digit year numbers precede adoption of the Gregorian calendar, and may return either an Error or the year number. Four-digit year numbers preceding 1582 (inception of the Gregorian Calendar) may return either an Error or the year number. Four-digit year numbers following 1582 should return the year number.

See also MONTH 6.10.13, DAY 6.10.5, VALUE 6.13.34

6.10.24 YEARFRAC

Summary: Extracts the number of years (including fractional part) between two dates

Syntax: YEARFRAC( DateParam StartDate ; DateParam EndDate [ ; Basis B = 0 ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Computes the fraction of the number of years between a StartDate and EndDate.  

B indicates the day-count convention to use in the calculation. 4.11.7

See also DATEDIF 6.10.3

6.11 External Access Functions

6.11.1 General

OpenFormula defines two functions, DDE and HYPERLINK, for accessing external data.

6.11.2 DDE

Summary: Returns data from a DDE request

Syntax: DDE( Text Server ; Text Topic ; Text Item [ ; Integer Mode = 0 ] )

Returns: Number|Text

Constraints: None

Semantics: Performs a DDE request and returns its result. The request invokes the service Server on the topic named as Topic, requesting that it reply with the information on Item.

Evaluators may choose to not perform this function on every recalculation, but instead cache an answer and require a separate action to re-perform these requests. Evaluators shall perform this request on initial load when their security policies permit it.

Mode is an optional parameter that determines how the results are returned:

Table 7 - DDE

Mode

Effect

0 or missing

Data converted to number using VALUE in the number style's locale of the default table cell style

1

Data converted to number using VALUE in the English-US (en_US) locale

2

Data retrieved as text (not converted to number)

In an OpenDocument spreadsheet document the default table cell style is specified with table:default-cell-style-name. Its number:number-style specified by style:data-style-name specifies the locale to use in the conversion.

The DDE function is non-portable because it depends on availability of external programs (server parameter) and their interpretation of the topic and item parameters.

6.11.3 HYPERLINK

Summary: Creation of a hyperlink involving an evaluated expression.

Syntax: HYPERLINK( Text IRI [ ; Text|Number FunctionResult ] )

Returns: Text or Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: The default for the second argument is the value of the first argument. The second argument value is returned.

In addition, hosting environments may interpret expressions containing HYPERLINK function calls as calling for an implementation-dependent creation of a hypertext link based on the expression containing the HYPERLINK function calls.

6.12 Financial Functions

6.12.1 General

The financial functions are defined for use in financial calculations.

An annuity is a recurring series of payments.  A "simple annuity" is one where equal payments are made at equal intervals, and the compounding of interest occurs at those same intervals.  The time between payments is called the "payment interval".  Where payments are made at the end of the payment interval, it is called an "ordinary annuity".  Where payments are made at the beginning of the payment interval, it is called an "annuity due".  Periods are numbered starting at 1.

Financial functions defined in this standard use a cash flow sign convention where outgoing cash flows are negative and incoming cash flows are positive.

6.12.2 ACCRINT

Summary: Calculates the accrued interest for securities with periodic interest payments.

Syntax: ACCRINT( DateParam Issue ; DateParam First ; DateParam Settlement ; Number Coupon ; Number Par ; Integer Frequency [ ; Basis B = 0 [ ; Logical CalcMethod = TRUE ] ] )

Returns: Currency

Constraints: Issue < First < Settlement ; Coupon > 0; Par > 0

Frequency is one of the following values:

Table 8 - ACCRINT

Frequency

Frequency of coupon payments

1

Annual

2

Semiannual

4

Quarterly

12

Monthly

Semantics: Calculates the accrued interest for securities with periodic interest payments. ACCRINT supports short, standard, and long Coupon periods.

If CalcMethod is TRUE (the default) then ACCRINT returns the sum of the accrued interest in each coupon period from issue date until settlement date. If CalcMethod is FALSE then ACCRINT returns the sum of the accrued interest in each coupon period from first interest date until settlement date. For each coupon period, the interest is Par * Coupon * YEARFRAC(start-of-period;end-of-period; B)

See also ACCRINTM 6.12.3, YEARFRAC 6.10.24

6.12.3 ACCRINTM

Summary: Calculates the accrued interest for securities that pay at maturity.

Syntax: ACCRINT( DateParam Issue ; DateParam Settlement ; Number Coupon ; Number Par [ ; Basis B = 0 ] )

Returns: Currency

Constraints: Coupon > 0; Par > 0

Semantics: Calculates the accrued interest for securities that pay at maturity.

See also ACCRINT 6.12.2

6.12.4 AMORLINC

Summary: Calculates the amortization value for the French accounting system using linear depreciation (l'amortissement linéaire comptable) .

Syntax: AMORLINC( Number Cost ; DateParam PurchaseDate ; DateParam FirstPeriodEndDate ; Number Salvage ; Integer Period ; Number Rate [ ; Basis B = 0 ] )

Returns: Currency

Constraints: Cost > 0; PurchaseDate FirstPeriodEndDate; Salvage 0; Period 0; Rate > 0

Semantics: Calculates the amortization value for the French accounting system using linear depreciation.

When Period = 0:

AMORLINC = Cost Rate YEARFRAC ( PurchaseDate , FirstPeriodEndDate , Basis )
 

For full periods, where Period > 0, the depreciation is Cost * Rate

t = Cost Salvage Cost Rate
 

For the last period, possibly a partial period: the depreciation = Cost - Salvage - accumulated-depreciation, where accumulated-depreciation is the sum of the depreciation in period 0 plus any full period depreciations.

AMORLINC = Cost Rate
 

When Period > depreciated life of the asset, i.e., when Period > (Cost - Salvage) / (Cost * Rate) then the depreciation is 0.

AMORLINC = 0
 

Note: The behavior of this function is implementation-defined in cases where PurchaseDate = FirstPeriodEndDate.

See also DB 6.12.13, DDB 6.12.14, YEARFRAC 6.10.24

6.12.5 COUPDAYBS

Summary: Calculates the number of days between the beginning of the coupon period that contains the settlement date and the settlement date.

Syntax: COUPDAYBS( DateParam Settlement ; DateParam Maturity ; Integer Frequency [ ; Basis B = 0 ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Settlement < Maturity

Frequency is one of the following values:

Table 9 - COUPDAYBS

Frequency

Frequency of coupon payments

1

Annual

2

Semiannual

4

Quarterly


Semantics: Calculate the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date.

See also COUPDAYS 6.12.6 , COUPDAYSNC 6.12.7 , COUPNCD 6.12.7 , COUPNUM 6.12.9 , COUPPCD 6.12.10

6.12.6 COUPDAYS

Summary: Calculates the number of days in a coupon period that contains the settlement date.

Syntax: COUPDAYS( DateParam Settlement ; DateParam Maturity ; Integer Frequency [ ; Basis B = 0 ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Settlement < Maturity

Frequency is one of the following values:

Table 10 - COUPDAYS

Frequency

Frequency of coupon payments

1

Annual

2

Semiannual

4

Quarterly


Semantics: Calculates the number of days in the coupon period containing the settlement date.

See also COUPDAYBS 6.12.5 , COUPDAYSNC 6.12.7 , COUPNCD 6.12.7 , COUPNUM 6.12.9 , COUPPCD 6.12.10

6.12.7 COUPDAYSNC

Summary: Calculates the number of days between a settlement date and the next coupon date.

Syntax: COUPDAYNC( DateParam Settlement ; DateParam Maturity ; Integer Frequency [ ; Basis B = 0 ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Settlement < Maturity

Frequency is one of the following values:

Table 11 - COUPDAYSNC

Frequency

Frequency of coupon payments

1

Annual

2

Semiannual

4

Quarterly


Semantics: Calculates the number of days between the settlement date and the next coupon date.

See also COUPDAYBS 6.12.5 , COUPDAYS 6.12.6 , COUPNCD 6.12.7 , COUPNUM 6.12.9 , COUPPCD 6.12.10

6.12.8 COUPNCD

Summary: Calculates the next coupon date following a settlement.

Syntax: COUPNCD( DateParam Settlement ; DateParam Maturity ; Integer Frequency [ ; Basis B = 0 ] )

Returns: Date

Constraints: Settlement < Maturity

Frequency is the number of coupon payments per year. Frequency is one of the following values:

Table 12 - COUPNCD

Frequency

Frequency of coupon payments

1

Annual

2

Semiannual

4

Quarterly


Semantics: Calculates the next coupon date after the Settlement date based on the Maturity (expiration) date of the asset, the Frequency of coupon payments and the day-count B.

B indicates the day-count convention to use in the calculation. 4.11.7

See also: COUPDAYSNC 6.12.7

6.12.9 COUPNUM

Summary: Calculates the number of outstanding coupons between settlement and maturity dates.

Syntax: COUPNUM( DateParam Settlement ; DateParam Maturity ; Integer Frequency [ ; Basis B = 0 ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Frequency is the number of coupon payments per year. Frequency is one of the following values:

Table 13 - COUPNUM

Frequency

Frequency of coupon payments

1

Annual

2

Semiannual

4

Quarterly


Semantics: Calculates the number of coupons in the interval between the Settlement and the Maturity (expiration) date of the asset, the Frequency of coupon payments and the day-count B.

B indicates the day-count convention to use in the calculation. 4.11.7

See also COUPDAYBS 6.12.5, COUPDAYS 6.12.6, COUPDAYSNC 6.12.7, COUPNCD 6.12.7, COUPPCD 6.12.10

6.12.10 COUPPCD

Summary: Calculates the next coupon date prior a settlement.

Syntax: COUPPCD( DateParam Settlement ; DateParam Maturity ; Integer Frequency [ ; Basis B = 0 ] )

Returns: Date

Constraints: Settlement < Maturity

Frequency is the number of coupon payments per year. Frequency is one of the following values:

Table 14 - COUPPCD

Frequency

Frequency of coupon payments

1

Annual

2

Semiannual

4

Quarterly


Semantics: Calculates the next coupon date prior to the Settlement date based on the Maturity (expiration) date of the asset, the Frequency of coupon payments and the day-count B.

B indicates the day-count convention to use in the calculation. 4.11.7

See also COUPDAYBS 6.12.5, COUPDAYS 6.12.6, COUPDAYSNC 6.12.7, COUPNCD 6.12.7, COUPNUM 6.12.9

6.12.11 CUMIPMT

Summary: Calculates a cumulative interest payment.

Syntax: CUMIPMT( Number Rate ; Number Periods ; Number Value ; Integer Start ; Integer End ; Integer Type )

Returns: Currency

Constraints: Rate > 0; Value > 0; 1 Start End Periods

Type is one of the following values:

Table 15 - CUMIPMT

Type

Maturity date

0

due at the end

1

due at the beginning

Semantics: Calculates the cumulative interest payment.

CUMIPMT = p = Start End IPMT ( Rate , p , Periods , Value , 0 , Type )
 

See also IPMT 6.12.23, CUMPRINC 6.12.12

6.12.12 CUMPRINC

Summary: Calculates a cumulative principal payment.

Syntax: CUMPRINC( Number Rate ; Number Periods ; Number Value ; Integer Start ; Integer End ; Integer Type )

Returns: Currency

Constraints: Type is one of the following values:

Table 16 - CUMPRINC

Type

Maturity date

0

due at the end

1

due at the beginning

Type

Maturity date

0

due at the end

1

due at the beginning

Semantics: Calculates the cumulative principal payment.

CUMPRINC = p = Start End PPMT ( Rate , p , Periods , Value , 0 , Type )
 

See also PPMT 6.12.37 , CUMIPMT 6.12.11

6.12.13 DB

Summary: Compute the depreciation allowance of an asset.

Syntax: DB( Number Cost ; Number Salvage ; Integer LifeTime ; Number Period [ ; Number Month = 12 ] )

Returns: Currency

Constraints: Cost > 0, Salvage 0, LifeTime > 0; Period > 0; 0 < Month < 13

Semantics: Calculate the depreciation allowance of an asset with an initial value of Cost, an expected useful LifeTime, and a final Salvage value at a specified Period of time, using the fixed-declining balance method. The parameters are:

The rate is calculated as follows:

rate = 1 ( Salvage Cost ) 1 LifeTime
 

and is rounded to 3 decimals.

For the first period the residual value is

value 1 = Cost ( 1 Month 12 rate )
 

For all periods, where Period LifeTime, the residual value is calculated by

value Period = value Period 1 ( 1 rate )
 

If Month was specified, the residual value for the period after LifeTime becomes

value LifeTime + 1 = value LifeTime ( 1 ( 1 Month 12 ) rate )
 

The depreciation allowance for the first period is

DB 1 = Cost value 1
 

For all other periods the allowance is calculated by

DB period = value period value period 1
 

For all periods, where Period > LifeTime + 1 – INT(Month / 12), the depreciation allowance is zero.

See also DDB 6.12.14, SLN 6.12.45, INT 6.17.2

6.12.14 DDB

Summary: Compute the amount of depreciation at a given period of time.

Syntax: DDB( Number Cost ; Number Salvage ; Number LifeTime ; Number Period [ ; Number DeclinationFactor = 2 ] )

Returns: Currency

Constraints: Cost 0, Salvage 0, Salvage Cost, 1 Period LifeTime, DeclinationFactor > 0

Semantics: Compute the amount of depreciation of an asset at a given period of time. The parameters are:

To calculate depreciation, DDB uses a fixed rate. When DeclinationFactor = 2 this is the double-declining-balance method (because it is double the straight-line rate that would depreciate the asset to zero). The rate is given by:

rate = DeclinationFactor LifeTime
 

The depreciation each period is calculated as

depreciation_of_period = MIN( book_value_at_start_of_ period * rate; book_value_at_start_of_ period - Salvage )

Thus the asset depreciates at rate until the book value is Salvage value.

BookValueAtStartOfPeriod Period = Cost i = 1 Period 1 DepreciationOfPeriod i
 

To allow also non-integer Period values this algorithm may be used:

rate = DeclinationFactor LifeTime if rate 1 then { rate = 1 if Period = 1 then oldValue = Cost else oldValue = 0 endif } else { oldValue = Cost ( 1 rate ) Period 1 } endif newValue = Cost ( 1 rate ) Period if newValue < Salvage then DDB = oldValue Salvage else DDB = oldValue newValue endif if DDB < 0 then DDB = 0 endif
 

If Period is an Integer number, the relation between DDB and VDB is:
DDB( Cost ; Salvage ; LifeTime ; Period ; DeclinationFactor )
equals
VDB( Cost ; Salvage ; LifeTime ; Period - 1 ; Period ; DeclinationFactor ; TRUE )

See also SLN 6.12.45, VDB 6.12.50, MIN 6.18.48

6.12.15 DISC

Summary: Returns the discount rate of a security.

Syntax: DISC( DateParam Settlement ; DateParam Maturity ; Number Price ; Number Redemption [ ; Basis B = 0 ] )

Returns: Percentage

Constraints: Settlement < Maturity

Semantics: Calculates the discount rate of a security.

DISC = Redemption Price Redemption YEARFRAC ( Settlement , Maturity , B )
 

See also YEARFRAC 6.10.24

6.12.16 DOLLARDE

Summary: Converts a fractional dollar representation into a decimal representation.

Syntax: DOLLARDE( Number Fractional ; Integer Denominator )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Denominator > 0

Semantics: Converts a fractional dollar representation into a decimal representation.

DOLLARDE = TRUNC ( Fractional ) + Fractional TRUNC ( Fractional ) Denominator
 

See also DOLLARFR 6.12.17 , TRUNC 6.17.8

6.12.17 DOLLARFR

Summary: Converts a decimal dollar representation into a fractional representation.

Syntax: DOLLARFR( Number Decimal ; Integer Denominator )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Denominator > 0

Semantics: Converts a decimal dollar representation into a fractional representation.

DOLLARFR = TRUNC ( Decimal ) + ( Decimal TRUNC ( Decimal ) ) Denominator
 

See also DOLLARDE 6.12.16, TRUNC 6.17.8

6.12.18 DURATION

Summary: Returns the Macaulay duration of a fixed interest security in years

Syntax: DURATION( Date Settlement ; Date Maturity ; Number Coupon ; Number Yield ; Number Frequency [ ; Basis B = 0 ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Yield 0, Coupon 0, Settlement Maturity; Frequency = 1, 2, 4

Semantics: Computes the Macaulay duration, given:

See also MDURATION 6.12.26

6.12.19 EFFECT

Summary: Returns the net annual interest rate for a nominal interest rate.

Syntax: EFFECT( Number Rate ; Integer Payments )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Rate 0; Payments > 0

Semantics: Nominal interest refers to the amount of interest due at the end of a calculation period. Effective interest increases with the number of payments made. In other words, interest is often paid in installments (for example, monthly or quarterly) before the end of the calculation period.

EFFECT = ( 1 + Rate Payments ) Payments 1
 

See also NOMINAL 6.12.28

6.12.20 FV

Summary: Compute the future value (FV) of an investment.

Syntax: FV( Number Rate ; Number Nper ; Number Payment [ ; [ Number Pv = 0 ] [ ; Number PayType = 0 ] ] )

Returns: Currency

Constraints: None.

Semantics: Computes the future value of an investment. The parameters are:

See PV 6.12.41 for the equation this solves.

See also PV 6.12.41, NPER 6.12.29, PMT 6.12.36, RATE 6.12.42

6.12.21 FVSCHEDULE

Summary: Returns the accumulated value given starting capital and a series of interest rates.

Syntax: FVSCHEDULE( Number Principal ; NumberSequence Schedule )

Returns: Currency

Constraints: None.

Semantics: Returns the accumulated value given starting capital and a series of interest rates, as follows:

Principle i = 1 N ( 1 + Schedule [ i ] )
 

See also PV 6.12.41, NPER 6.12.29, PMT 6.12.36, RATE 6.12.42

6.12.22 INTRATE

Summary: Computes the interest rate of a fully vested security.

Syntax: INTRATE( Date Settlement ; Date Maturity ; Number Investment ; Number Redemption [ ; Basis Basis = 0 ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Settlement < Maturity

Semantics: Calculates the annual interest rate that results when an item is purchased at the investment price and sold at the redemption price. No interest is paid on the investment. The parameters are:

The return value for this function is:

INTRATE = Redemption Investment Investment YEARFRAC ( Settlement ; Maturity ; B )
 

See also RECEIVED 6.12.43, YEARFRAC 6.10.24

6.12.23 IPMT

Summary: Returns the amount of an annuity payment going towards interest.

Syntax: IPMT( Number Rate ; Number Period ; Number Nper ; Number PV [ ; Number FV = 0 [ ; Number Type = 0 ] ] )

Returns: Currency

Constraints: None.

Semantics: Computes the interest portion of an amortized payment for a constant interest rate and regular payments. The interest payment is the interest rate multiplied by the balance at the beginning of the period. The parameters are:

See also PPMT 6.12.37, PMT 6.12.36

6.12.24 IRR

Summary: Compute the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows.

Syntax: IRR( NumberSequence Values [ ; Number Guess = 0.1 ] )

Returns: Percentage

Constraints: None.

Semantics: Compute the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows.

If provided, Guess is an estimate of the interest rate to start the iterative computation. If omitted, the value 0.1 (10%) is assumed.

The result of IRR is the rate at which the NPV() function will return zero with the given values.

There is no closed form for IRR. Evaluators may return an approximate solution using an iterative method, in which case the Guess parameter may be used to initialize the iteration. If the evaluator is unable to converge on a solution given a particular Guess, it may return an Error.

See also NPV 6.12.30, RATE 6.12.42

6.12.25 ISPMT

Summary: Compute the interest payment of an amortized loan for a given period.

Syntax: ISPMT( Number Rate ; Number Period ; Number Nper ; Number Pv )

Returns: Currency

Constraints: None.

Semantics: Computes the interest payment of an amortized loan for a given period. The parameters are:

See also PV 6.12.41, FV 6.12.20, NPER 6.12.29, PMT 6.12.36, RATE 6.12.42

6.12.26 MDURATION

Summary: Returns the modified Macaulay duration of a fixed interest security in years.

Syntax: MDURATION( Date Settlement ; Date Maturity ; Number Coupon ; Number Yield ; Number Frequency [ ; Basis B = 0 ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Yield 0, Coupon 0, Settlement Maturity; Frequency = 1, 2, 4

Semantics: Computes the modified Macaulay duration, given:

The modified duration is computed as follows:

duration = DURATION ( Settlement , Maturity , Coupon , Yield , Frequency , B ) MDURATION = duration 1 + ( Yield Frequency )
 

See also DURATION 6.12.18

6.12.27 MIRR

Summary: Returns the modified internal rate of return (IRR) of a series of periodic investments.

Syntax: MIRR( Array Values ; Number Investment ; Number ReinvestRate )

Returns: Percentage

Constraints: Values shall contain at least one positive value and at least one negative value.

Semantics: Values is a series of periodic income (positive values) and payments (negative values) at regular intervals (Text and Empty cells are ignored). Investment is the rate of interest of the payments (negative values); ReinvestRate is the rate of interest of the reinvestment (positive values).

Computes the modified internal rate of return, which is:

( NPV ( ReinvestRate , Values > 0 ) ( 1 + ReinvestRate ) n NPV ( Investment ; Values < 0 ) ( 1 + Investment ) ) ( 1 n 1 ) 1
 

where N is the number of incomes and payments in Values (total).

See also IRR 6.12.24, NPV 6.12.30

6.12.28 NOMINAL

Summary: Compute the annual nominal interest rate.

Syntax: NOMINAL( Number EffectiveRate ; Integer CompoundingPeriods )

Returns: Number

Constraints: EffectiveRate > 0 , CompoundingPeriods > 0

Semantics: Returns the annual nominal interest rate based on the effective rate and the number of compounding periods in one year. The parameters are:

Suppose that P is the present value, m is the compounding periods per year, the future value after one year is

P ( 1 + NOMINAL m ) m
 

The mapping between nominal rate and effective rate is

EFFECT = ( 1 + NOMINAL m ) m 1
 

See also EFFECT 6.12.19

6.12.29 NPER

Summary: Compute the number of payment periods for an investment.

Syntax: NPER( Number Rate ; Number Payment ; Number Pv [ ; [ Number Fv ] [ ; Number PayType ] ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None.

Semantics: Computes the number of payment periods for an investment. The parameters are:

If Rate is 0, then NPER solves this equation:

Pv = Fv ( Payment NPER )
 

If Rate is non-zero, then NPER solves this equation:

0 = Pv ( 1 + Rate ) NPER + Payment ( 1 + Rate PaymentType ) ( ( 1 + Rate ) NPER 1 ) Rate + Fv
 

Evaluators claiming to support the “Medium” or “Large” set shall support negative rates; evaluators only claiming to support the “Small” set need not.

See also FV 6.12.20, RATE 6.12.42, PMT 6.12.36, PV 6.12.41

6.12.30 NPV

Summary: Compute the net present value (NPV) for a series of periodic cash flows.

Syntax: NPV( Number Rate ; { NumberSequenceList Values }+ )

Returns: Currency

Constraints: None.

Semantics: Computes the net present value for a series of periodic cash flows with the discount rate Rate. Values should be positive if they are received as income, and negative if the amounts are paid as outgo. Because the result is affected by the order of values, evaluators shall evaluate arguments in the order given and range reference and array arguments row-wise starting from top left.

If N is the number of values in Values, the formula for NPV is:

NPV = i = 1 N Values i ( 1 + Rate ) i
 

See also FV 6.12.20, IRR 6.12.24, NPER 6.12.29, PMT 6.12.36, PV 6.12.41, XNPV 6.12.52

6.12.31 ODDFPRICE

Summary: Compute the value of a security per 100 currency units of face value. The security has an irregular first interest date.

Syntax: ODDFPRICE( DateParam Settlement ; DateParam Maturity ; DateParam Issue ; DateParam First ; Number Rate ; Number Yield ; Number Redemption ; Number Frequency [ ; Basis B = 0 ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Rate, Yield, and Redemption should be greater than 0.

Semantics: The parameters are

See also ODDLPRICE 6.12.33 , ODDFYIELD 6.12.32

6.12.32 ODDFYIELD

Summary: Compute the yield of a security per 100 currency units of face value. The security has an irregular first interest date.

Syntax: ODDFYIELD( DateParam Settlement ; DateParam Maturity ; DateParam Issue ; DateParam First ; Number Rate ; Number Price ; Number Redemption ; Number Frequency [ ; Basis B = 0 ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Rate, Price, and Redemption should be greater than 0. Maturity > First > Settlement > Issue.

Semantics: The parameters are

See also ODDLYIELD 6.12.34 , ODDFPRICE 6.12.31

6.12.33 ODDLPRICE

Summary: Compute the value of a security per 100 currency units of face value. The security has an irregular last interest date.

Syntax: ODDLPRICE( DateParam Settlement ; DateParam Maturity ; DateParam Last ; Number Rate ; Number AnnualYield ; Number Redemption ; Number Frequency [ ; Basis B = 0 ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Rate, AnnualYield, and Redemption should be greater than 0. The Maturity date should be greater than the Settlement date, and the Settlement should be greater than the last interest date.

Semantics: The parameters are

See also ODDFPRICE 6.12.31

6.12.34 ODDLYIELD

Summary: Compute the yield of a security which has an irregular last interest date.

Syntax: ODDLYIELD( DateParam Settlement ; DateParam Maturity ; DateParam Last ; Number Rate ; Number Price ; Number Redemption ; Number Frequency [ ; Basis B = 0 ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Rate, Price, and Redemption should be greater than 0.

Semantics: The parameters are

See also ODDLPRICE 6.12.33 , ODDFYIELD 6.12.32

6.12.35 PDURATION

Summary: Returns the number of periods required by an investment to realize a specified value.

Syntax: PDURATION( Number Rate ; Number CurrentValue ; Number SpecifiedValue )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Rate > 0; CurrentValue > 0; SpecifiedValue > 0

Semantics: Calculates the number of periods for attaining a certain value SpecifiedValue, starting from CurrentValue and using the interest rate Rate.

PDURATION = log ( SpecifiedValue ) log ( CurrentValue ) log ( Rate + 1 )
 

See also DURATION 6.12.18

6.12.36 PMT

Summary: Compute the payment made each period for an investment.

Syntax: PMT( Number Rate ; Integer Nper ; Number Pv [ ; [ Number Fv = 0 ] [ ; Number PayType = 0 ] ] )

Returns: Currency

Constraints: Nper > 0

Semantics: Computes the payment made each period for an investment. The parameters are:

If Rate is 0, the following equation is solved:

Pv = Fv ( PMT Nper )
 

If Rate is nonzero, then PMT solves this equation:

0 = Pv ( 1 + Rate ) Nper + PMT ( 1 + Rate PayType ) ( ( 1 + Rate ) Nper 1 ) Rate + Fv
 

See also FV 6.12.20, NPER 6.12.29, PV 6.12.41, RATE 6.12.42

6.12.37 PPMT

Summary: Calculate the payment for a given period on the principal for an investment at a given interest rate and constant payments.

Syntax: PPMT( Number Rate ; Integer Period ; Integer Nper ; Number Present [ ; Number Future = 0 [ ; Number Type = 0 ] ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Rate and Present should be greater than 0. 0 < Period < Nper.

Semantics: The parameters are:

See also PMT 6.12.36

6.12.38 PRICE

Summary: Calculates a quoted price for an interest paying security, per 100 currency units of face value.

Syntax: PRICE( DateParam Settlement ; DateParam Maturity ; Number Rate ; Number AnnualYield ; Number Redemption ; Number Frequency [ ; Basis Bas = 0 ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Rate, AnnualYield, and Redemption should be greater than 0; Frequency = 1, 2 or 4.

Semantics: If A is the number of days from the Settlement date to next coupon date, B is the number of days of the coupon period that the Settlement is in, C is the number of coupons between Settlement date and Redemption date, D is the number of days from beginning of coupon period to Settlement date, then PRICE is calculated as

PRICE = Redemption ( 1 + Yield Frequency ) C 1 + A B + k = 1 C 100 Rate Frequency ( 1 + Yield Frequency ) k 1 + A B 100 Rate Frequency D B
 

The parameters are:

See also PRICEDISC 6.12.39, PRICEMAT 6.12.40

6.12.39 PRICEDISC

Summary: Calculate the price of a security with a discount per 100 currency units of face value.

Syntax: PRICEDISC( DateParam Settlement ; DateParam Maturity ; Number Discount ; Number Redemption [ ; Basis B = 0 ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Discount and Redemption should be greater than 0.

Semantics: The parameters are:

See also PRICE 6.12.38, PRICEMAT 6.12.40, YIELDDISC 6.12.54

6.12.40 PRICEMAT

Summary: Calculate the price per 100 currency units of face value of the security that pays interest on the maturity date.

Syntax: PRICEMAT( DateParam Settlement ; DateParam Maturity ; DateParam Issue ; Number Rate ; Number AnnualYield [ ; Basis B = 0 ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Settlement < Maturity, Rate 0, AnnualYield 0

Semantics: The parameters are:

If both, Rate and AnnualYield, are 0, the return value is 100.

See also PRICEDISC 6.12.39, PRICEMAT 6.12.40

6.12.41 PV

Summary: Compute the present value (PV) of an investment.

Syntax: PV( Number Rate ; Number Nper ; Number Payment [ ; [ Number Fv = 0 ] [ ; Number PayType = 0 ] ] )

Returns: Currency

Constraints: None.

Semantics: Computes the present value of an investment. The parameters are:

If Rate is 0, then:

PV = Fv ( Payment Nper )
 

If Rate is nonzero, then PV solves this equation:

0 = PV ( 1 + Rate ) Nper + Payment ( 1 + Rate PayType ) ( ( 1 + Rate ) Nper 1 ) Rate + Fv
 

See also FV 6.12.20, NPER 6.12.29, PMT 6.12.36, RATE 6.12.42

6.12.42 RATE

Summary: Compute the interest rate per period of an investment.

Syntax: RATE( Number Nper ; Number Payment ; Number Pv [ ; [ Number Fv = 0 ] [ ; [ Number PayType = 0 ] [ ; Number Guess = 0.1 ] ] ] )

Returns: Percentage

Constraints: If Nper is 0 or less than 0, the result is an Error.

Semantics: Computes the interest rate of an investment. The parameters are:

RATE solves this equation:

0 = Fv + Pv ( 1 + Rate ) Nper + Payment ( 1 + Rate PayType ) ( ( 1 + Rate ) Nper 1 ) Rate
 

See also FV 6.12.20, NPER 6.12.29, PMT 6.12.36, PV 6.12.41

6.12.43 RECEIVED

Summary: Calculates the amount received at maturity for a zero coupon bond.

Syntax: RECEIVED( DateParam Settlement ; DateParam Maturity ; Number Investment ; Number Discount [ ; Basis B = 0 ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Investment and Discount should be greater than 0, Settlement < Maturity

Semantics: The parameters are:

Settlement: the settlement/purchase date of the security

The returned value is:

RECEIVED = Investment 1 Discount YEARFRAC ( Settlement ; Maturity ; B )
 

See also YEARFRAC 6.10.24

6.12.44 RRI

Summary: Returns an equivalent interest rate when an investment increases in value.

Syntax: RRI( Number Nper ; Number Pv ; Number Fv )

Returns: Percentage

Constraints: Nper > 0

Semantics: Returns the interest rate given Nper (the number of periods), Pv (present value), and Fv (future value), calculated as follows:

( Fv Pv ) ( 1 / Nper ) 1
 

See also FV 6.12.20, NPER 6.12.29, PMT 6.12.36, PV 6.12.41, RATE 6.12.42

6.12.45 SLN

Summary: Compute the amount of depreciation at a given period of time using the straight-line depreciation method.

Syntax: DDB( Number Cost ; Number Salvage ; Number LifeTime )

Returns: Currency

Constraints: None.

Semantics: Compute the amount of depreciation of an asset at a given period of time using straight-line depreciation. The parameters are:

For alternative methods to compute depreciation, see DDB 6.12.14.

6.12.46 SYD

Summary: Compute the amount of depreciation at a given period of time using the Sum-of-the-Years'-Digits method.

Syntax: SYD( Number Cost ; Number Salvage ; Number LifeTime ; Number Period )

Returns: Currency

Constraints: None.

Semantics: Compute the amount of depreciation of an asset at a given period of time using the Sum-of-the-Years'-Digits method. The parameters are:

SYD = ( Cost Salvage ) ( LifeTime + 1 Period ) 2 ( LifeTime + 1 ) LifeTime
 

For other methods of computing depreciation, see DDB 6.12.14.

See also SLN 6.12.45

6.12.47 TBILLEQ

Summary: Compute the bond-equivalent yield for a treasury bill.

Syntax: TBILLEQ( DateParam Settlement ; DateParam Maturity ; Number Discount )

Returns: Number

Constraints: The maturity date should be less than one year beyond settlement date. Discount is any positive value.

Semantics: The parameters are defined as:

TBILLEQ is calculated as

TBILLEQ = 365 rate 360 ( rate DSM )
 

where DSM is the number of days between settlement and maturity computed according to the 360 days per year basis (basis 2, 4.11.7)

See also TBILLPRICE 6.12.48, TBILLYIELD 6.12.49

6.12.48 TBILLPRICE

Summary: Compute the price per 100 face value for a treasury bill.

Syntax: TBILLPRICE( DateParam Settlement ; DateParam Maturity ; Number Discount )

Returns: Number

Constraints: The maturity date should be less than one year beyond settlement. Discount is any positive value.

Semantics: The parameters are:

See also TBILLEQ 6.12.47, TBILLYIELD 6.12.49

6.12.49 TBILLYIELD

Summary: Compute the yield for a treasury bill.

Syntax: TBILLYIELD( DateParam Settlement ; DateParam Maturity ; Number Price )

Returns: Number

Constraints: The maturity date should be less than one year beyond settlement. Price is any positive value.

Semantics: The parameters are:

See also TBILLEQ 6.12.47, TBILLPRICE 6.12.48

6.12.50 VDB

Summary: Calculates the depreciation allowance of an asset with an initial value, an expected useful life, and a final value of salvage for a period specified, using the variable-rate declining balance method..

Syntax: VDB( Number Cost ; Number Salvage ; Number LifeTime ; Number StartPeriod ; Number EndPeriod [ ; Number DepreciationFactor = 2 [ ; Logical NoSwitch = FALSE ] ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Salvage < Cost, LifeTime > 0, 0 ≤ StartPeriodLifeTime, StartPeriodEndPeriodLifeTime, DepreciationFactor ≥ 0

Semantics: The parameters are:

VDB allows for the use of an initialPeriod option to calculate depreciation for the period the asset is placed in service. VDB uses the fractional part of StartPeriod and EndPeriod to determine the initialPeriod option. If both StartPeriod and EndPeriod have fractional parts, then VDB uses the fractional part of StartPeriod.

DepreciationFactor is an optional argument that specifies the percentage of straight-line depreciation you want to use as the depreciation rate. If you omit this argument, VDB uses 2, which is the double-declining balance rate. DepreciationFactor can be any value greater than or equal to 0; commonly used rates are 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, and 2.

NoSwitch is an optional argument that you include if you do not want VDB to switch to straight-line depreciation for the remaining useful life. Normally, declining-balance switches to such a straight-line calculation when it is greater than the declining-balance calculation.

If NoSwitch is FALSE or omitted, VDB automatically switches to straight-line depreciation when that is greater than declining-balance depreciation. If NoSwitch is TRUE, VDB never switches to straight-line depreciation.

See also DDB 6.12.14, SLN 6.12.45

6.12.51 XIRR

Summary: Compute the internal rate of return for a non-periodic series of cash flows.

Syntax: XIRR( NumberSequence Values ; DateSequence Dates [ ; Number Guess = 0.1 ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: The size of Values and Dates are equal. Values contains at least one positive and one negative cash flow.

Semantics: Compute the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows which is not necessarily periodic. The parameters are:

See also IRR 6.12.24, XNPV 6.12.52

6.12.52 XNPV

Summary: Compute the net present value of a series of cash flows.

Syntax: XNPV( Number Rate ; Reference|Array Values ; Reference|Array Dates )

Returns: Number

Constraints:

Number of elements in Values equals number of elements in Dates.

All elements of Values are of type Number.

All elements of Dates are of type Number.

All elements of Dates Dates[1]

Semantics: Compute the net present value for a series of cash flows which is not necessarily periodic. The parameters are:

With N being the number of elements in Values and Dates each, the formula is:

XNPV = i = 1 N Values i ( 1 + Rate ) Dates i Dates 1 365
 

See also NPV 6.12.30

6.12.53 YIELD

Summary: Calculate the yield of a bond.

Syntax: YIELD( DateParam Settlement ; DateParam Maturity ; Number Rate ; Number Price ; Number Redemption ; Number Frequency [ ; Basis B = 0 ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Rate, Price, and Redemption should be greater than 0.

Semantics: The parameters are:

See also PRICE 6.12.38, YIELDDISC 6.12.54, YIELDMAT 6.12.55

6.12.54 YIELDDISC

Summary: Calculate the yield of a discounted security per 100 currency units of face value.

Syntax: YIELDDISC( DateParam Settlement ; DateParam Maturity ; Number Price ; Number Redemption [ ; Basis B = 0 ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Price and Redemption should be greater than 0.

Semantics: The parameters are:

The return value is

YIELDDISC = Redemption Price 1 YEARFRAC ( Settlement ; Maturity ; Basis )
 

See also PRICEDISC 6.12.39, YEARFRAC 6.10.24

6.12.55 YIELDMAT

Summary: Calculate the yield of the security that pays interest on the maturity date.

Syntax: YIELDMAT( DateParam Settlement ; DateParam Maturity ; DateParam Issue ; Number Rate ; Number Price [ ; Basis B = 0 ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Rate and Price should be greater than 0.

Semantics: The parameters are:

See also PRICE 6.12.38, YIELD 6.12.53, YIELDDISC 6.12.54

6.13 Information Functions

6.13.1 General

Information functions provide information about a data value, the spreadsheet, or underlying environment, including special functions for converting between data types.

6.13.2 AREAS

Summary: Returns the number of areas in a given list of references.

Syntax: AREAS( ReferenceList R )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Returns the number of areas in the reference list R.

See also Infix Operator Reference Concatenation 6.4.13, INDEX 6.14.6

6.13.3 CELL

Summary: Returns information about position, formatting or contents in a reference.

Syntax: CELL( Text Info_Type [ ; Reference R ] )

Returns: Information about position, formatting properties or content

Constraints: None

Semantics: The parameters are

Table 17 - CELL

Info_Type

Comment

COL

Returns the column number of the cell.

ROW

Returns the row number of the cell.

SHEET

Returns the sheet number of the cell.

ADDRESS

Returns the absolute address of the cell.  The sheet name is included if given in the reference and does not reference the same sheet as the sheet the expression is evaluated upon. For an external reference a Source as specified in the syntax rules for References 5.8 is included.

FILENAME

Returns the file name of the file that contains the cell as an IRI. If the file is newly created and has not yet been saved, the file name is empty text “”.

CONTENTS

Returns the contents of the cell, without formatting properties.

COLOR

Returns 1 if color formatting is set for negative value in this cell; otherwise returns 0

FORMAT

Returns a text string which shows the number format of the cell.

,(comma) = number with thousands separator

F = number without thousands separator

C = currency format

S = exponential representation

P = percentage

To indicate the number of decimal places after the decimal separator, a number is given right after the above characters.

D1 = MMM-D-YY, MM-D-YY and similar formats

D2 = DD-MM

D3 = MM-YY

D4 = DD-MM-YYYY HH:MM:SS

D5 = MM-DD

D6 = HH:MM:SS AM/PM

D7 = HH:MM AM/PM

D8 = HH:MM:SS

D9 = HH:MM

G = All other formats

- (Minus) at the end = negative numbers in the cell have color setting

() (brackets) at the end = this cell has the format settings with parentheses for positive or all values

TYPE

Returns the text value corresponding to the type of content in the cell:

“b” : blank or empty cell content

“l” : label or text cell content

“v” : number value cell content

WIDTH

Returns the column width of the cell.

The unit is the width of one zero (0) character in default font size.

PROTECT

Returns the protection status of the cell:

1 = cell is protected

0 = cell is unprotected

PARENTHESES

Returns 1 if the cell has the format settings with parentheses for positive or all values, otherwise returns 0

PREFIX

Returns single character text strings corresponding to the alignment of the cell.

“'” (APOSTROPHE, U+0027) = left alignment

'"' (QUOTATION MARK, U+0022) = right alignment

“^” (CIRCUMFLEX ACCENT, U+005E) = centered alignment

“\” (REVERSE SOLIDUS, U+005C) = filled alignment

otherwise, returns empty string "".

6.13.4 COLUMN

Summary: Returns the column number(s) of a reference.

Syntax: COLUMN( [ Reference R ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: AREAS(R) = 1

Semantics: Returns the column number of a reference, where “A” is 1, “B” is 2, and so on. If no parameter is given, the current cell is used. If a reference has multiple columns, an array of numbers is returned with all of the columns in the reference.

See also AREAS 6.13.2, ROW 6.13.29, SHEET 6.13.31

6.13.5 COLUMNS

Summary: Returns the number of columns in a given range.

Syntax: COLUMNS( Reference|Array R )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: Returns the number of columns in the range or array specified. The result is not dependent on the cell content in the range.

See also ROWS 6.13.30

6.13.6 COUNT

Summary: Count the number of Numbers provided.

Syntax: COUNT( { NumberSequenceList N }+ )

Returns: Number

Constraints: One or more parameters.

Semantics: Counts the numbers in the list N. Only numbers in references are counted; all other types are ignored. Errors are not propagated. It is implementation-defined what happens if 0 parameters are passed, but it should be an Error or 0.

See also COUNTA 6.13.7

6.13.7 COUNTA

Summary: Count the number of non-empty values.

Syntax: COUNTA( { Any AnyValue }+ )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None.

Semantics: Counts the number of non-blank values. A value is non-blank if it contains any content of any type, including an Error. In a reference, every cell that is not empty is included in the count. An empty string value ("") is not considered blank. Errors contained in a range are considered a non-blank value for purposes of the count; errors do not propagate. Constant expressions or formulas are allowed; these are evaluated and if they produce an Error value the Error value is counted as one non-blank value (and not propagated as an Error). It is implementation-defined what happens if 0 parameters are passed, but it should be an Error or 0.

See also COUNT 6.13.6, ISBLANK 6.13.14

6.13.8 COUNTBLANK

Summary: Count the number of blank cells.

Syntax: COUNTBLANK( ReferenceList R )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None.

Semantics: Counts the number of blank cells in R. A cell is blank if the cell is empty for purposes of COUNTBLANK. If ISBLANK(R) is TRUE, then it is blank. A cell with numeric value zero ('0') is not blank. It is implementation-defined whether or not a cell returning the empty string ("") is considered blank; because of this, there is a (potential) subtle difference between COUNTBLANK and ISBLANK.

Evaluators shall support one Reference as a parameter and may support a ReferenceList as a parameter.

See also COUNT 6.13.6, COUNTA 6.13.7, COUNTIF 6.13.9, ISBLANK 6.13.14

6.13.9 COUNTIF

Summary: Count the number of cells in a range that meet a criteria.

Syntax: COUNTIF( ReferenceList R ; Criterion C )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Does not accept constant values as the reference parameter.

Semantics: Counts the number of cells in the reference range R that meet the Criterion C (4.11.8).

The values returned may vary depending upon the HOST-USE-REGULAR-EXPRESSIONS or HOST-USE-WILDCARDS or HOST-SEARCH-CRITERIA-MUST-APPLY-TO-WHOLE-CELL properties. 3.4

See also COUNT 6.13.6, COUNTA 6.13.7, COUNTBLANK 6.13.8, COUNTIFS 6.13.10, SUMIF 6.16.62, Infix Operator "=" 6.4.7, Infix Operator "<>" 6.4.8, Infix Operator Ordered Comparison ("<", "<=", ">", ">=") 6.4.9

6.13.10 COUNTIFS

Summary: Count the number of cells that meet multiple criteria in multiple ranges.

Syntax: COUNTIFS( Reference R1 ; Criterion C1 [ ; Reference R2 ; Criterion C2 ]... )

Returns: Number

Constraints: Does not accept constant values as the reference parameter.

Semantics: Counts the number of cells that meet the Criterion C1 in the reference range R1 and the Criterion C2 in the reference range R2, and so on (4.11.8). All reference ranges shall have the same dimension and size, else an Error is returned. A logical AND is applied between each array result of each selection; an entry is counted only if the same position in each array is the result of a Criterion match.

The values returned may vary depending upon the HOST-USE-REGULAR-EXPRESSIONS or HOST-USE-WILDCARDS or HOST-SEARCH-CRITERIA-MUST-APPLY-TO-WHOLE-CELL properties. 3.4

See also AVERAGEIFS 6.18.6, COUNT 6.13.6, COUNTA 6.13.7, COUNTBLANK 6.13.8, COUNTIF 6.13.9, SUMIF 6.16.62, SUMIFS 6.16.63, Infix Operator "=" 6.4.7, Infix Operator "<>" 6.4.8, Infix Operator Ordered Comparison ("<", "<=", ">", ">=") 6.4.9

6.13.11 ERROR.TYPE

Summary: Returns Number representing the specific Error type.

Syntax: ERROR.TYPE( Error E )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None.

Semantics: Returns a number representing what kind of Error has occurred. Note that unlike most functions, this function does not propagate Error values. Receiving a non-Error value returns an Error. In particular, ERROR.TYPE(NA()) returns 7, and ERROR.TYPE applied to a non-Error returns an Error.

See also NA 6.13.27

6.13.12 FORMULA

Summary: Returns formula at given reference as text.

Syntax: FORMULA( Reference X )

Returns: String

Constraints: Reference X shall contain a formula.

Semantics: Returns the formula in reference X as a string. The specific syntax of this returned string is implementation-defined. This function is intended to aid debugging by simplifying display of formulas in other cells. Error results of the referred formula cell are not propagated.

See also ISFORMULA 6.13.18

6.13.13 INFO

Summary: Returns information about the environment.

Syntax: INFO( Text Category )

Returns: Any (see below)

Constraints: Category shall be valid.

Semantics: Returns information about the environment in the given category.

Evaluators shall support at least the following categories:

Table 18 - INFO

Category

Meaning

Type

"directory"

Current directory. This shall be formatted so file names can be appended to the result (e.g., on POSIX and Windows systems it shall end with the separator “/” or “\” respectively).

Text

"memavail"

Amount of memory “available”, in bytes. On many modern (virtual memory) systems this value is not really available, but a system should return 0 if it is known that there is no more memory available, and greater than 0 otherwise

Number

"memused"

Amount of memory used, in bytes, by the data

Number

"numfile"

Number of active worksheets in files

Number

"osversion"

Operating system version

Text

"origin"

The top leftmost visible cell's absolute reference prefixed with “$A:”. In locales where cells are ordered right-to-left, the top rightmost visible cell is used instead.

Text

"recalc"

Current recalculation mode. If the locale is English, this is either "Automatic" or "Manual" (the exact text depends on the locale)

Text

"release"

The version of the implementation.

Text

"system"

The type of the operating system.

Text

"totmem"

Total memory available in bytes, including the memory already used.

Number

Evaluators may support other categories.

See also CELL 6.13.3

6.13.14 ISBLANK

Summary: Return TRUE if the referenced cell is blank, else return FALSE.

Syntax: ISBLANK( Scalar X )

Returns: Logical

Constraints: None

Semantics: If X is of type Number, Text, or Logical, return FALSE. If X is a reference to a cell, examine the cell; if it is blank (has no value), return TRUE, but if it has a value, return FALSE. A cell with the empty string is not considered blank. This function does not propagate Error values.

See also ISNUMBER 6.13.22, ISTEXT 6.13.25

6.13.15 ISERR

Summary: Return TRUE if the parameter has type Error and is not #N/A, else return FALSE.

Syntax: ISERR( Scalar X )

Returns: Logical

Constraints: None

Semantics: If X is of type Error, and ISNA(X) is not true, returns TRUE. Otherwise it returns FALSE. Note that this function returns FALSE if given #N/A; if this is not desired, use ISERROR 6.13.16. Note that this function does not propagate Error values.

ISERR(X) is the same as:

IF(ISNA(X),FALSE(),ISERROR(X))

See also ERROR.TYPE 6.13.11, ISERROR 6.13.16, ISNA 6.13.20, ISNUMBER 6.13.22, ISTEXT 6.13.25, NA 6.13.27

6.13.16 ISERROR

Summary: Return TRUE if the parameter has type Error, else return FALSE.

Syntax: ISERROR( Scalar X )

Returns: Logical

Constraints: None

Semantics: If X is of type Error, returns TRUE, else returns FALSE. Note that this function returns TRUE if given #N/A; if this is not desired, use ISERR 6.13.15. Note that this function does not propagate Error values.

See also ERROR.TYPE 6.13.11, ISERR 6.13.15, ISNA 6.13.20, ISNUMBER 6.13.22, ISTEXT 6.13.25, NA 6.13.27

6.13.17 ISEVEN

Summary: Return TRUE if the value is even, else return FALSE.

Syntax: ISEVEN( Number X )

Returns: Logical

Constraints: None

Semantics: First, compute X1 = TRUNC(X). Then, if X1 is even (a division by 2 has a remainder of 0), return TRUE, else return FALSE. The result is implementation-defined if given a Logical value; an evaluator may return either an Error or the result of converting the Logical value to a Number (per Conversion to Number 6.3.5 ).

See also ISODD 6.13.23, TRUNC 6.17.8

6.13.18 ISFORMULA

Summary: Return TRUE if the reference refers to a formula, else return FALSE.

Syntax: ISFORMULA( Reference X )

Returns: Logical

Constraints: None

Semantics: If X refers to a cell whose value is computed by a formula, return TRUE, else return FALSE. A formula itself may compute a constant; in that case it will still return TRUE since it is still a formula. Passing a non-reference, or a reference to more than one cell, is implementation-defined. This function does not propagate Error values.

See also ISTEXT 6.13.25, ISNUMBER 6.13.22

6.13.19 ISLOGICAL

Summary: Return TRUE if the parameter has type Logical, else return FALSE.

Syntax: ISLOGICAL( Scalar X )

Returns: Logical

Constraints: None

Semantics: If X is of type Logical, returns TRUE, else FALSE. Evaluators that do not have a distinct Logical type will return the same value ISNUMBER(X) would return. This function does not propagate Error values.

See also ISTEXT 6.13.25, ISNUMBER 6.13.22

6.13.20 ISNA

Summary: Return TRUE if the parameter has type Error and is #N/A, else return FALSE.

Syntax: ISERR( Scalar X )

Returns: Logical

Constraints: None

Semantics: If X is #N/A, return TRUE, else return FALSE. Note that if X is a reference, the value being referenced is considered. This function does not propagate Error values.

See also ERROR.TYPE 6.13.11, ISERROR 6.13.16, ISERR 6.13.15, ISNUMBER 6.13.22, ISTEXT 6.13.25, NA 6.13.27

6.13.21 ISNONTEXT

Summary: Return TRUE if the parameter does not have type Text, else return FALSE.

Syntax: ISNONTEXT( Scalar X )

Returns: Logical

Constraints: None

Semantics: If X is of type Text, ISNONTEXT returns FALSE, else TRUE. If X is a reference, it examines what X references. References to empty cells are not considered text, so for reference to an empty cell ISNONTEXT will return TRUE.  Empty Cell 4.7 This function does not propagate Error values.

ISNONTEXT(X) is equivalent to NOT(ISTEXT(X))

See also ISNUMBER 6.13.22, ISLOGICAL 6.13.19, ISTEXT 6.13.25, NOT 6.15.7

6.13.22 ISNUMBER

Summary: Return TRUE if the parameter has type Number, else return FALSE.

Syntax: ISNUMBER( Scalar X )

Returns: Logical

Constraints: None

Semantics: If X is of type Number, returns TRUE, else FALSE. Evaluators need not have a distinguished Logical type; in such evaluators, ISNUMBER(TRUE()) is TRUE. This function does not propagate Error values.

See also ISTEXT 6.13.25, ISLOGICAL 6.13.19

6.13.23 ISODD

Summary: Return TRUE if the value is even, else return FALSE.

Syntax: ISODD( Number X )

Returns: Logical

Constraints: None

Semantics: First, compute X1 = TRUNC(X). Then, if X1 is odd (a division by 2 has a remainder of 1), return TRUE, else return FALSE. The result is implementation-defined if given a Logical value; an evaluator may return either an Error or the result of converting the Logical value to a Number (per Conversion to Number 6.3.5 ).

See also ISEVEN 6.13.17, TRUNC 6.17.8

6.13.24 ISREF

Summary: Return TRUE if the parameter is of type reference, else return FALSE.

Syntax: ISREF( Any X )

Returns: Logical

Constraints: None

Semantics: If X is of type Reference or ReferenceList, return TRUE, else return FALSE. Note that unlike nearly all other functions, when given a reference this function does not then examine the value being referenced. Some functions and operators return references, and thus ISREF will return TRUE when given their results. X may be a ReferenceList, in which case ISREF returns TRUE. This function does not propagate Error values.

See also ISNUMBER 6.13.22, ISTEXT 6.13.25

6.13.25 ISTEXT

Summary: Return TRUE if the parameter has type Text, else return FALSE.

ISTEXT(X) is equivalent to NOT(ISNONTEXT(X)).

Syntax: ISTEXT( Scalar X )

Returns: Logical

Constraints: None

Semantics: If X is of type Text, returns TRUE, else FALSE. References to empty cells are NOT considered Text. If X is a reference, examines what X references. References to empty cells are NOT considered Text, so a reference to an empty cell will return FALSE. Empty Cell 4.7 This function does not propagate Error values.

See also ISNONTEXT 6.13.21, ISNUMBER 6.13.22, ISLOGICAL 6.13.19

6.13.26 N

Summary: Return the number of a value.

Syntax: N( Any X )

Returns: Number

Constraints: None

Semantics: If X is a Reference, it is first dereferenced to a scalar. Then its type is examined. If it is of type Number, it is returned. If it is of type Logical, 1 is returned if TRUE else 0 is returned. It is implementation-defined what happens if it is provided a Text value.

See also T 6.20.22, VALUE 6.13.34

6.13.27 NA

Summary: Return the constant Error value #N/A.

Syntax: NA()

Returns: Error

Constraints: Shall have 0 parameters

Semantics: This function takes no arguments and returns the Error #N/A.

See also ERROR.TYPE 6.13.11, ISERROR 6.13.16

6.13.28 NUMBERVALUE

Summary: Convert text to number, in a locale-independent way.

Syntax: NUMBERVALUE( Text X [ ; Text DecimalSeparator [ ; Text GroupSeparator ] ] )

Returns: Number

Constraints: LEN(DecimalSeparator) = 1, DecimalSeparator shall not appear in GroupSeparator

Semantics: Converts given Text value X into Number. If X is a Reference, it is first dereferenced.

X is transformed according to the following rules:

  1. 1.Starting from the beginning, remove all occurrences of the group separator before any decimal separator  

  2. 2.Starting from the beginning, replace the first occurrence in the text of the decimal separator character with the FULL STOP (U+002E) character  

  3. 3.Remove all whitespace characters (5.14).  

  4. 4.If the first character of the resulting string is a period FULL STOP (U+002E) then prepend a zero