Akoma Ntoso Media Type Version 1.0

Committee Specification Draft 01 /
Public Review Draft 01

25 March 2015

Specification URIs

This version:

http://docs.oasis-open.org/legaldocml/akn-media/v1.0/csprd01/akn-media-v1.0-csprd01.html (Authoritative)



Previous version:


Latest version:

http://docs.oasis-open.org/legaldocml/akn-media/v1.0/akn-media-v1.0.html (Authoritative)



Technical Committee:

OASIS LegalDocumentML (LegalDocML) TC


Fabio Vitali (fabio@cs.unibo.it), University of Bologna-CIRSFID

Monica Palmirani (monica.palmirani@unibo.it), University of Bologna-CIRSFID


Fabio Vitali (fabio@cs.unibo.it), University of Bologna-CIRSFID

Monica Palmirani (monica.palmirani@unibo.it), University of Bologna-CIRSFID

Related work:

This specification is related to:

·         Akoma Ntoso Version 1.0 Part 1: XML Vocabulary. http://docs.oasis-open.org/legaldocml/akn-core/v1.0/csprd01/part1-vocabulary/akn-core-v1.0-csprd01-part1-vocabulary.html.

·         Akoma Ntoso Version 1.0 Part 2: Specifications. http://docs.oasis-open.org/legaldocml/akn-core/v1.0/csprd01/part2-specs/akn-core-v1.0-csprd01-part2-specs.html.

·         Akoma Ntoso Version 1.0 XML schemas. http://docs.oasis-open.org/legaldocml/akn-core/v1.0/csprd01/part2-specs/schemas/.


This document contains the relevant information for the registration of the Akoma Ntoso media type (akn+xml) with IANA.


This document was last revised or approved by the OASIS LegalDocumentML (LegalDocML) TC on the above date. The level of approval is also listed above. Check the “Latest version” location noted above for possible later revisions of this document. Any other numbered Versions and other technical work produced by the Technical Committee (TC) are listed at https://www.oasis-open.org/committees/tc_home.php?wg_abbrev=legaldocml#technical.

TC members should send comments on this specification to the TC’s email list. Others should send comments to the TC’s public comment list, after subscribing to it by following the instructions at the “Send A Comment” button on the TC’s web page at https://www.oasis-open.org/committees/legaldocml/.

For information on whether any patents have been disclosed that may be essential to implementing this specification, and any offers of patent licensing terms, please refer to the Intellectual Property Rights section of the TC’s web page (https://www.oasis-open.org/committees/legaldocml/ipr.php).

Citation format:

When referencing this specification the following citation format should be used:


Akoma Ntoso Media Type Version 1.0. Edited by Fabio Vitali and Monica Palmirani. 25 March 2015. OASIS Committee Specification Draft 01 / Public Review Draft 01. http://docs.oasis-open.org/legaldocml/akn-media/v1.0/csprd01/akn-media-v1.0-csprd01.html. Latest version: http://docs.oasis-open.org/legaldocml/akn-media/v1.0/akn-media-v1.0.html.



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Table of Contents

1        Introduction. 5

1.1 Terminology. 5

1.2 Normative References. 5

2        IANA Considerations. 6

2.1 Encoding considerations. 6

2.2 Security considerations. 6

2.3 Interoperability considerations. 6

2.4 Published specification. 6

2.5 Applications which use this media. 6

2.6 Fragment identifier considerations: 7

2.7 Restrictions on usage. 7

2.8 Provisional registration. 7

2.9 Additional information. 7

2.10 Preliminary Community Review. 7

2.11 Intended usage. 7

2.12 Persons to contact for further information : 7

2.13 Author/Change controllers. 7

2.13.1 Authors. 7

2.13.2 Change Controllers. 7

3        Conformance. 8

Appendix A. Acknowledgments. 9

Appendix B. Revision History. 10



1      Introduction

1.1 Terminology

The key words “MUST”, “MUST NOT”, “REQUIRED”, “SHALL”, “SHALL NOT”, “SHOULD”, “SHOULD NOT”, “RECOMMENDED”, “MAY”, and “OPTIONAL” in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

1.2 Normative References

[RFC2119]               Bradner, S., “Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels”, BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt.

[RFC3986]               Berners-Lee T., Fielding R., Masinter, L.. “Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax”, RFC 3986, January 2005. http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt.         

[RFC7303]               Thompson, H., Lilley, C. “XML Media Types”, RFC 7303, July 2014. http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc7303.txt.

2      IANA Considerations

This information has been submitted to the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG) for review, approval, and registration with IANA.

MIME media type name : Application

MIME subtype name : akn+xml

Required parameters : None

Optional parameters :


with identical semantics to the charset parameter of the application/xml media type as specified in [RFC 7303].

2.1 Encoding considerations

Identical to those for 'application/xml'. See [RFC7303], Section 3.2.

2.2 Security considerations

Since this media type uses the "+xml" convention, it shares the security considerations described in Section 10 of [RFC7303], Akoma Ntoso documents may contain arbitrary URIs. Hence the security issues of [RFC3986], Section 7, apply.

Akoma Ntoso documents may contain arbitrary content within specific elements of the XML stream. This could include executable code injected by malicious agents. Yet, there is no requirement that such content is actually recognized and executed on the receiving end, and receiving agents MUST ignore executable content coming from unsecured channels and/or unknown sources. 

Akoma Ntoso documents provide their own means to deal with integrity requirements for content, under the guise of XML digital signatures on the whole or individual parts of the content. With regard to privacy requirements, most of the Akoma Ntoso documents are in fact of public nature and possess no privacy requirements. Whenever the providing agent is sending confidential documents or containing parts with a different degree of confidentiality, it MUST adopt secure transmission channels such as SSL/TLS, and MAY adopt in addition further mechanisms such as XML encryption on the confidential parts of the content.

2.3 Interoperability considerations

This specification describes processing semantics that dictate behavior that must be followed when dealing with, among other things, unrecognized elements. Since Akoma Ntoso is designed to be extensible in specific elements, "application/akn+xml" processors MAY expect that content received is well-formed XML, but processors SHOULD NOT assume that the content is valid Akoma Ntoso or expect to recognize all of the elements and attributes in the document.

2.4 Published specification


2.5 Applications which use this media

Akoma Ntoso documents are created, accepted and managed by a number of tools in use by parliaments and other entities that are active in the legal XML domain. These include document management systems, legal drafting tools, URI resolvers and format converters.


The necessity of this media types arises with those institutions that have more than one XML data format for their legal documents, and that want to add support for Akoma Ntoso, since by examining the request they need to be able to determine the specific XML vocabulary to use for the response.

2.6 Fragment identifier considerations:

Documents having the media type 'application/akn+xml' use a fragment identifier notation totally consistent with what is specified in [RFC7303] for the media type 'application/xml'.

2.7 Restrictions on usage


2.8 Provisional registration

We kindly request provisional registration for application/akn+xml

2.9 Additional information

1. Deprecated alias names for this type : None

2. Magic number(s) : There is no single initial octet sequence that is always

3. File extension(s) : Akoma Ntoso documents are most often identified with the extension .akn or .xml.

4. Macintosh file type code : TEXT

5. Object Identifiers: None

2.10 Preliminary Community Review

Preliminary Community Review was obtained in August 2014, with a mail to media-types@iana.org, id: http://www.ietf.org/mail-archive/web/media-types/current/msg00587.html , that received no comments.

2.11 Intended usage


2.12 Persons to contact for further information :

1. Name : Fabio Vitali or Monica Palmirani

2. Email : fabio.vitali@unibo.it or monica.palmirani@unibo.it

2.13 Author/Change controllers

2.13.1 Authors

1. Name : Fabio Vitali or Monica Palmirani

2. Email : fabio.vitali@unibo.it or monica.palmirani@unibo.it

2.13.2 Change Controllers

OASIS has change control over these specifications.


3      Conformance

This chapter provides no conformance clauses.

Appendix A. Acknowledgments

The following individuals have participated in the creation of this specification and are gratefully acknowledged:


Aisenberg, Michael, Mitre Corporation

Arocena, María de la Paz, Uruguay Parliament

Barysheva, Nataliya, LexisNexis a Division of Reed Elsevier

Bbaale, Fred, Uganda Parliament

Beatch, Richard, Bloomberg Finance L.P.

Bennett, Daniel, Individual Member

Briotti, Giuseppe, Senato della Repubblica d’Italia

Bruce, Tom, Cornell Law School, Legal Information Institute

Cabral, James, MTG Management Consultants, LLC.

Dohaini, Bassel, Lebanese Parliament

Dunning, John, LexisNexis a Division of Reed Elsevier

Fabiani, Claudio, EU Parliament

Ferguson, Kimberly, Library of Congress

Ferreira, Daniel, Uruguay Parliament

Fiagome, Shirley-Ann, Ghana Parliament

Gheen, Tina, Library of Congress

Greenwood, Dazza, M.I.T.

Hardjono, Thoma, M.I.T.

Hariharan, Ashok, Africa i-Parliaments Action Plan (UN/DESA)

Harris, Jim, National Center for State Courts

Joergensen, John, Cornell Law School, Legal Information Institute

Junge, Peter, Beijing Sursen Electronic Technology Co, Ltd.

Khamis, Mr. Maan, LexisNexis a Division of Reed Elsevier

Marchetti, Carlo, Senato della Repubblica d’Italia

Mattocks, Carl, Individual Member

Murungi, Michael, Kenya National Council for Law Reporting

Otto Eridan, Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional de Chile

Palmirani, Monica, University of Bologna

Parisse, Véronique, Aubay S.A.

Petri, Steve, LexisNexis a Division of Reed Elsevier

Pham, Kim, US Military Health Services

Ramsahye-Rakha, Saseeta, Mauritius National Assembly

Sandoval, Alvaro, Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional de Chile

Shifrin, Laurel, LexisNexis a Division of Reed Elsevier

Sifaqui, Christian, Biblioteca del Congreso Nacional de Chile

Sosa, Raquel, Uruguay Parliament

Sperberg, Roger, LexisNexis a Division of Reed Elsevier

Tosar Piaggio, Sylvia, Uruguay Parliament

Vergottini, Grant, Xcential Group, LLC.

Vitali, Fabio, University of Bologna

Waldt, Dale, LexisNexis a Division of Reed Elsevier

Weber, Andrew, Library of Congress

Wemer, Jason, Wells Fargo

Wintermann, John, Bloomberg Finance L.P.

Zeni, Flavio, Africa i-Parliaments Action Plan (UN/DESA)

Appendix B. Revision History




Changes Made



[Monica Palmirani]

[First version]



[Fabio Vitali]

[Added specifications about security and privacy]