The <audience> metadata element indicates, through the value of its type attribute, the intended audience for a topic. Since a topic can have multiple audiences, you can include multiple audience elements. For each audience you specify, you can identify the high-level task (job) they are trying to accomplish and the level of experience (experiencelevel) expected.


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Name Description Data Type Default Value Required?
type Indicates the kind of person for whom the content of the topic is intended. Allowable values are:
A user of the product
A product purchaser
A product administrator
A programmer
An executive
Someone who provides services related to the product
Use the value specified by the othertype attribute
(user | purchaser | administrator | programmer | executive | services | other) #IMPLIED No
othertype Indicates an alternate audience type, when the type is not available in the type attribute value list. This value is used as the user-provided audience when the type attribute value is set to "other." CDATA #IMPLIED No
job Indicates the high-level task the audience for the topic is trying to accomplish. Different audiences may read the same topic in terms of different high-level tasks; for example, an administrator may read the topic while administering, while a programmer may read the same topic while customizing. Allowable values are: installing, customizing, administering, programming, using, maintaining, troubleshooting, evaluating, planning, migrating, other. installing | customizing | administering | programming | using | maintaining | troubleshooting | evaluating | planning | migrating | other #IMPLIED No
otherjob If the job attribute value is "other" the value of this attribute is used to identify a kind of job other than the default ones provided by the job attribute. CDATA #IMPLIED No
experiencelevel Indicates the level of experience the audience is assumed to possess. Different audiences may have different experience levels with respect to the same topic; for example, a topic may require general knowledge from a programmer, but expert knowledge from a user. Allowable values are:
A first time user.
The most common user.
An experienced user.
(novice | general | expert) #IMPLIED No
name Used to associate the audience element with values used in the audience attribute CDATA #REQUIRED Yes
%select-atts; (platform, product, audience, otherprops, importance, rev, status) A set of related attributes, described at %select-atts; parameter entity PE not applicable Not applicable
%global-atts; (xtrf, xtrc) A set of related attributes, described at %global-atts; parameter entity PE not applicable Not applicable
class A common attribute described in Other common DITA attributes


For a command reference topic for experienced programmers, the following might be an appropriate indication of that audience:

<audience type="programmer" job="programming" experiencelevel="expert"/>

OASIS DITA Language Specification v1.0 -- 09 May 2005
Copyright (c) OASIS Open 2005. All Rights Reserved.