Description: Description: Description: oasis

STIXTM Version 1.2.1. Part 14: Vocabularies

Committee Specification 01

05 May 2016

Specification URIs

This version:

http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/cs01/part14-vocabularies/stix-v1.2.1-cs01-part14-vocabularies.doc (Authoritative)

http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/cs01/part14-vocabularies/stix-v1.2.1-cs01-part14-vocabularies.html

http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/cs01/part14-vocabularies/stix-v1.2.1-cs01-part14-vocabularies.pdf

Previous version:

http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/csprd01/part14-vocabularies/stix-v1.2.1-csprd01-part14-vocabularies.doc (Authoritative)

http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/csprd01/part14-vocabularies/stix-v1.2.1-csprd01-part14-vocabularies.html

http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/csprd01/part14-vocabularies/stix-v1.2.1-csprd01-part14-vocabularies.pdf

Latest version:

http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/stix-v1.2.1-part14-vocabularies.doc (Authoritative)

http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/stix-v1.2.1-part14-vocabularies.html

http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/stix-v1.2.1-part14-vocabularies.pdf

Technical Committee:

OASIS Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) TC

Chair:

Richard Struse (Richard.Struse@HQ.DHS.GOV), DHS Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C)

Editors:

Sean Barnum (sbarnum@mitre.org), MITRE Corporation

Desiree Beck (dbeck@mitre.org), MITRE Corporation

Aharon Chernin (achernin@soltra.com), Soltra

Rich Piazza (rpiazza@mitre.org), MITRE Corporation

Additional artifacts:

This prose specification is one component of a Work Product that also includes:

Š         STIX Version 1.2.1. Part 1: Overview. http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/cs01/part1-overview/stix-v1.2.1-cs01-part1-overview.html

Š         STIX Version 1.2.1. Part 2: Common. http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/cs01/part2-common/stix-v1.2.1-cs01-part2-common.html

Š         STIX Version 1.2.1. Part 3: Core. http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/cs01/part3-core/stix-v1.2.1-cs01-part3-core.html

Š         STIX Version 1.2.1. Part 4: Indicator. http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/cs01/part4-indicator/stix-v1.2.1-cs01-part4-indicator.html

Š         STIX Version 1.2.1. Part 5: TTP. http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/cs01/part5-ttp/stix-v1.2.1-cs01-part5-ttp.html

Š         STIX Version 1.2.1. Part 6: Incident. http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/cs01/part6-incident/stix-v1.2.1-cs01-part6-incident.html

Š         STIX Version 1.2.1. Part 7: Threat Actor. http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/cs01/part7-threat-actor/stix-v1.2.1-cs01-part7-threat-actor.html

Š         STIX Version 1.2.1. Part 8: Campaign. http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/cs01/part8-campaign/stix-v1.2.1-cs01-part8-campaign.html

Š         STIX Version 1.2.1. Part 9: Course of Action. http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/cs01/part9-coa/stix-v1.2.1-cs01-part9-coa.html

Š         STIX Version 1.2.1. Part 10: Exploit Target. http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/cs01/part10-exploit-target/stix-v1.2.1-cs01-part10-exploit-target.html

Š         STIX Version 1.2.1. Part 11: Report. http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/cs01/part11-report/stix-v1.2.1-cs01-part11-report.html

Š         STIX Version 1.2.1. Part 12: Default Extensions. http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/cs01/part12-extensions/stix-v1.2.1-cs01-part12-extensions.html

Š         STIX Version 1.2.1. Part 13: Data Marking. http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/cs01/part13-data-marking/stix-v1.2.1-cs01-part13-data-marking.html

Š         STIX Version 1.2.1. Part 14: Vocabularies (this document). http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/cs01/part14-vocabularies/stix-v1.2.1-cs01-part14-vocabularies.html

Š         STIX Version 1.2.1. Part 15: UML Model. http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/cs01/part15-uml-model/stix-v1.2.1-cs01-part15-uml-model.html

Š         UML Model Serialization: http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/cs01/uml-model/

Related work:

This specification replaces or supersedes:

Š         STIXTM 1.2 Vocabularies Specification https://github.com/STIXProject/specifications/blob/version1.2/documents/pdf%20versions/STIX_Vocab_Draft.pdf

This specification is related to:

Š         CybOXTM Version 2.1.1. Work in progress. https://www.oasis-open.org/committees/tc_home.php?wg_abbrev=cti-cybox

Š         CybOXTM 2.1. https://cyboxproject.github.io/

Abstract:

The Structured Threat Information Expression (STIX) framework defines nine core constructs and the relationships between them for the purposes of modeling cyber threat information and enabling cyber threat information analysis and sharing.  This specification document defines the Vocabularies data model, which includes definitions for default constrained enumerations of values for specific properties in other STIX data models.

Status:

This document was last revised or approved by the OASIS Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) TC on the above date. The level of approval is also listed above. Check the “Latest version” location noted above for possible later revisions of this document. Any other numbered Versions and other technical work produced by the Technical Committee (TC) are listed at https://www.oasis-open.org/committees/tc_home.php?wg_abbrev=cti#technical.

TC members should send comments on this specification to the TC’s email list. Others should send comments to the TC’s public comment list, after subscribing to it by following the instructions at the “Send A Comment” button on the TC’s web page at https://www.oasis-open.org/committees/cti/.

For information on whether any patents have been disclosed that may be essential to implementing this specification, and any offers of patent licensing terms, please refer to the Intellectual Property Rights section of the TC’s web page (https://www.oasis-open.org/committees/cti/ipr.php).

Citation format:

When referencing this specification the following citation format should be used:

[STIX-v1.2.1-Vocabularies]

STIXTM Version 1.2.1. Part 14: Vocabularies. Edited by Sean Barnum, Desiree Beck, Aharon Chernin, and Rich Piazza. 05 May 2016. OASIS Committee Specification 01. http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/cs01/part14-vocabularies/stix-v1.2.1-cs01-part14-vocabularies.html. Latest version: http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v1.2.1/stix-v1.2.1-part14-vocabularies.html.

Notices

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Portions copyright © United States Government 2012-2016.  All Rights Reserved.

STIX™, TAXII™, AND CybOX™ (STANDARD OR STANDARDS) AND THEIR COMPONENT PARTS ARE PROVIDED “AS IS” WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED, IMPLIED, OR STATUTORY, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ANY WARRANTY THAT THESE STANDARDS OR ANY OF THEIR COMPONENT PARTS WILL CONFORM TO SPECIFICATIONS, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR FREEDOM FROM INFRINGEMENT, ANY WARRANTY THAT THE STANDARDS OR THEIR COMPONENT PARTS WILL BE ERROR FREE, OR ANY WARRANTY THAT THE DOCUMENTATION, IF PROVIDED, WILL CONFORM TO THE STANDARDS OR THEIR COMPONENT PARTS.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT OR ITS CONTRACTORS OR SUBCONTRACTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, ARISING OUT OF, RESULTING FROM, OR IN ANY WAY CONNECTED WITH THESE STANDARDS OR THEIR COMPONENT PARTS OR ANY PROVIDED DOCUMENTATION, WHETHER OR NOT BASED UPON WARRANTY, CONTRACT, TORT, OR OTHERWISE, WHETHER OR NOT INJURY WAS SUSTAINED BY PERSONS OR PROPERTY OR OTHERWISE, AND WHETHER OR NOT LOSS WAS SUSTAINED FROM, OR AROSE OUT OF THE RESULTS OF, OR USE OF, THE STANDARDS, THEIR COMPONENT PARTS, AND ANY PROVIDED DOCUMENTATION. THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES AND LIABILITIES REGARDING THE STANDARDS OR THEIR COMPONENT PARTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO ANY THIRD PARTY, IF PRESENT IN THE STANDARDS OR THEIR COMPONENT PARTS AND DISTRIBUTES IT OR THEM “AS IS.”

Table of Contents

1        Introduction. 8

1.1 STIXTM Specification Documents. 8

1.2 Document Conventions. 9

1.2.1 Fonts. 9

1.2.2 UML Package References. 9

1.2.3 UML Diagrams. 10

1.2.4 Enumeration Table Notation. 11

1.3 Terminology. 11

1.4 Normative References. 11

2        Background. 12

2.1.1 VocabularyStringType Data Type. 13

2.1.2 UnenforcedVocabularyStringType Data Type. 13

2.1.3 ControlledVocabularyStringType Data Type. 13

3        STIXTM Default Vocabularies Data Models. 14

3.1 AssetTypeVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 14

3.2 AttackerInfrastructureTypeVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 17

3.3 AttackerToolTypeVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 18

3.4 AvailabilityLossTypeVocab-1.1.1 Enumeration. 18

3.5 AvailabilityLossTypeVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 18

3.6 CampaignStatusVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 19

3.7 COAStageVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 19

3.8 CourseOfActionTypeVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 19

3.9 DiscoveryMethodVocab-2.0 Enumeration. 20

3.10 DiscoveryMethodVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 21

3.11 HighMediumLowVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 22

3.12 ImpactQualificationVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 22

3.13 ImpactRatingVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 23

3.14 IncidentCategoryVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 23

3.15 IncidentEffectVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 24

3.16 IncidentStatusVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 24

3.17 IndicatorTypeVocab-1.1 Enumeration. 25

3.18 IndicatorTypeVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 26

3.19 InformationSourceRoleVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 26

3.20 InformationTypeVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 27

3.21 IntendedEffectVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 27

3.22 LocationClassVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 28

3.23 LossDurationVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 29

3.24 LossPropertyVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 29

3.25 MalwareTypeVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 29

3.26 ManagementClassVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 30

3.27 MotivationVocab-1.1 Enumeration. 31

3.28 MotivationVocab-1.0.1 Enumeration. 31

3.29 MotivationVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 32

3.30 OwnershipClassVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 33

3.31 PackageIntentVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 33

3.32 PlanningAndOperationalSupportVocab-1.0.1 Enumeration. 35

3.33 PlanningAndOperationalSupportVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 36

3.34 ReportIntentVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 36

3.35 SecurityCompromiseVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 38

3.36 SystemTypeVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 38

3.37 ThreatActorSophisticationVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 39

3.38 ThreatActorTypeVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 40

3.39 VersioningVocab-1.0 Enumeration. 40

4        Conformance. 42

Appendix A. Suggested Default Vocabularies. 43

Appendix B. Acknowledgments. 45

Appendix C. Revision History. 47

 


1      Introduction

[All text is normative unless otherwise labeled]

The Structured Threat Information Expression (STIXTM) framework defines nine top-level component data models:  Observable[1], Indicator, Incident, TTP, ExploitTarget, CourseOfAction, Campaign, ThreatActor, and Report.  In addition, it defines a cross-cutting data model for expressing string-based properties as constrained by specific vocabularies. As part of this model, it defines numerous default vocabularies - defined lists of values to choose from when specifying certain properties in other STIX data models.  These vocabularies are provided as the default lists, but the STIX data models also allow users to define their own vocabularies or even use values outside of any constrained vocabulary.  Each default vocabulary in the Vocabularies data model is versioned separately (this is discussed further in Section 3).  This specification covers default vocabularies that are relevant to STIX v1.2.1.

In Section 1.1 we discuss additional specification documents, in Section 1.2 we provide document conventions, and in Section 1.3 we provide terminology. References are given in Section 1.4.  In Section 2, we give background information to help the reader better understand the specification details that are provided later in the document.  We present the Core data model specification details in Section 3 and conformance information in Section 4.

1.1 STIXTM Specification Documents

The STIX specification consists of a formal UML model and a set of textual specification documents that explain the UML model.  Specification documents have been written for each of the key individual data models that compose the full STIX UML model. 

The STIX Version 1.2.1 Part 1: Overview document provides a comprehensive overview of the full set of STIX data models, which in addition to the nine top-level data models mentioned in the Introduction, includes a core data model, a common data model, a cross-cutting data marking data model, various extension data models, and a vocabularies data model including a set of default controlled vocabularies.  STIX Version 1.2.1 Part 1: Overview also summarizes the relationship of STIX to other languages and outlines general STIX data model conventions.

Figure 1‑1 illustrates the set of specification documents are available.  The color black is used to indicate the specification overview document, altered shading differentiates the overarching Core and Common data models from the supporting data models (vocabularies, data marking, and default extensions), and the color white indicates the component data models. The solid grey color denotes the overall STIX Language UML model. This STIX Vocabularies specification document is highlighted in its associated color (see Section 1.2.3.1).  For a list of all STIX documents and related information sources, please see STIX Version 1.2.1 Part 1: Overview.

Figure 1‑1.  STIXTM Language v1.2.1 specification documents

1.2 Document Conventions

The following conventions are used in this document.

1.2.1 Fonts

The following font and font style conventions are used in the document:

Š         Capitalization is used for STIX high level concepts, which are defined in STIX Version 1.2.1 Part 1: Overview.

Examples: Indicator, Course of Action, Threat Actor

Š         The Courier New font is used for writing UML objects.

Examples: RelatedIndicatorsType, stixCommon:StatementType

Note that all high level concepts have a corresponding UML object.  For example, the Course of Action high level concept is associated with a UML class named, CourseOfActionType.

Š         The ‘italic’ font (with single quotes) is used for noting actual, explicit values for STIX Language properties.

                           Example:  ‘STIX Default Package Intent Vocabulary’

1.2.2 UML Package References

Each STIX data model is captured in a different UML package (e.g., Core package, Campaign package, etc.) where the packages together compose the full STIX UML model.  To refer to a particular class of a specific package, we use the format package_prefix:class, where package_prefix corresponds to the appropriate UML package. STIX Version 1.2.1 Part 1: Overview contains a list of the packages used by the Vocabularies data model, along with the associated prefix notations, descriptions, examples.

Note that in this specification document, we do not explicitly specify the package prefix for any classes that originate from the Vocabularies data model. 

1.2.3 UML Diagrams

This specification makes use of UML diagrams to visually depict relationships between STIX Language constructs. Note that the diagrams have been extracted directly from the full UML model for STIX; they have not been constructed purely for inclusion in the specification documents. Due to the nature of the Vocabularies data model, which mostly consists of UML enumerations, there are few diagrams included in this document.

In UML diagrams, classes are often presented with their attributes elided, to avoid clutter.  A class presented with an empty section at the bottom of the icon indicates that there are no attributes other than those that are visualized using associations.

1.2.3.1 Diagram Icons and Arrow Types

Diagram icons are used in a UML diagram to indicate whether a shape is a class, enumeration or data type, and decorative icons are used to indicate whether an element is an attribute of a class or an enumeration literal. In addition, two different arrow styles indicate either a directed association relationship (regular arrowhead) or a generalization relationship (triangle-shaped arrowhead).  The icons and arrow styles we use are shown and described in Table 1‑1.

Table 1‑1.  UML diagram icons

Icon

Description

This diagram icon indicates a class.  If the name is in italics, it is an abstract class.

This diagram icon indicates an enumeration.

This diagram icon indicates a data type.

This decorator icon indicates an attribute of a class.  The green circle means its visibility is public.  If the circle is red or yellow, it means its visibility is private or protected.

This decorator icon indicates an enumeration literal.

This arrow type indicates a directed association relationship.

This arrow type indicates a generalization relationship. 

1.2.3.2 Color Coding

The shapes of the UML diagrams are color coded to indicate the data model associated with a class.  The colors used in the Vocabularies specification are illustrated via exemplars in Figure 1‑2. Note that this data model uses UML stereotypes datatype and enumeration.

Figure 1‑2.  Data model color coding

1.2.4 Enumeration Table Notation

Throughout Section 3, tables are used to describe the list of defined values for each default vocabulary. Each property table consists of a column of literal names, and a description column that describes the literal name, if needed.

1.3 Terminology

The key words “MUST”, “MUST NOT”, “REQUIRED”, “SHALL”, “SHALL NOT”, “SHOULD”, “SHOULD NOT”, “RECOMMENDED”, “MAY”, and “OPTIONAL” in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

1.4 Normative References

[RFC2119]               Bradner, S., “Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels”, BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt.

2      Background

In this section, we provide high level information about the Vocabularies data model that is necessary to fully understand the specification details given in Section 3.

There are three vocabulary-related UML data types defined in STIX Version 1.2.1 Part 2: Common, and together they provide a content creator with four choices for defining content, listed below in order of formality.

Š         Leverage a formally defined default vocabulary extended from the stixCommon:ControlledVocabularyStringType data type. STIX v1.2 defines a collection of default vocabularies and associated enumerations that are based on input from the STIX community; however, not all vocabulary properties have an assigned formally defined default vocabulary.

Š         Formally define a custom vocabulary by extending the stixCommon:ControlledVocabularyStringType data type. Because this is an extension of the STIX Vocabularies data model, producers and consumers MUST have access to the addition to the data model for successful use in the sharing of STIX documents.

Š         Reference an externally-defined, custom vocabulary using the stixCommon:UnenforcedVocabularyStringType data type to constrain the set of values. Externally-defined vocabularies are explicitly defined, but have not been included as formally specified vocabularies within the STIX Vocabularies data model using the stixCommon:ControlledVocabularyStringType data type.  In this case, it is sufficient to specify the name of the vocabulary and a URL to a definition of that vocabulary.

Š         Choose an arbitrary and unconstrained value using the stixCommon:VocabularyStringType data type.

While not required by the general STIX language, default vocabularies should be used whenever possible to ensure the greatest level of compatibility between STIX users.  If an appropriate default vocabulary is not available, a formally defined custom vocabulary can be specified and leveraged. In addition to compatibility advantages, using formally defined vocabularies (whether default vocabularies or otherwise defined) enables enforced use of valid enumeration values. 

If a formally defined vocabulary is not sufficient for a content producer’s purposes, the STIX Vocabularies data model allows the two alternatives listed above: externally defined custom vocabularies and arbitrary string values, which dispense with enumerated vocabularies altogether.  If a custom vocabulary is not formally added to the Vocabularies data model then no enforcement policy of appropriate values is specified.

The UML diagram shown in Figure 2‑1 illustrates the relationships between the three vocabulary data types as defined in the STIX Common data model. As illustrated, all controlled vocabularies formally defined within the STIX Vocabularies data model are defined using an enumeration derived from the ControlledVocabularyStringType data type. 

As shown, the HighMediumLowVocab-1.0 enumeration (used as a defined controlled vocabulary exemplar) is defined as a specialization of the stixCommon:ControlledVocabularyStringType data type, and therefore it is also a specialization of the stixCommon:VocabularyStringType data type.

Further details of each vocabulary class are provided in Subsections 2.1.1 through 2.1.3.

Figure 2‑1. UML diagram of the STIXTM Vocabularies data model

2.1.1 VocabularyStringType Data Type

The stixCommon:VocabularyStringType data type is the basic data type of all vocabularies. Therefore, all properties in the collection of STIX data models that makes use of the Vocabularies data model must be defined to use the stixCommon:VocabularyStringType data type. Because this data type is a specialization of the basicDataTypes:BasicString data type, it can be used to support the arbitrary string option for vocabularies.

2.1.2 UnenforcedVocabularyStringType Data Type

The stixCommon:UnenforcedVocabularyStringType data type specifies custom vocabulary values via a definition outside of the STIX Vocabularies data model.  It extends the stixCommon:VocabularyStringType data type. Note that the STIX vocabularies data model does not define any enforcement policy for this data type.

2.1.3 ControlledVocabularyStringType Data Type

The stixCommon:ControlledVocabularyStringType data type specifies a formally defined vocabulary. It is an abstract data type so it MUST be extended via an enumeration defined according to the STIX Vocabularies data model (see Section 3). This enables appropriate enumeration values to be enforced for any property asserting a given formally defined vocabulary.

3      STIXTM Default Vocabularies Data Models

The STIX Vocabularies data model is defined as one UML package, but can be thought of as a collection of separate data models, each containing one UML enumeration.  Each vocabulary will be specified using a separate version number, which is appended to the enumeration name. This facilitates adding literals to the enumeration without the need to update the version number of any of the other STIX data models or the version number of the full STIX specification.

3.1 AssetTypeVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The AssetTypeVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the type of an asset. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Access reader

A device that protects an access point, using credentials.  Both the access point and the credentials themselves can be virtual (password) or physical (access card).

Administrator

ATM

An automatic teller machine.

Auditor

Auth token

A token used during authenication of an object, such as a user or system.

Backup

A copy of data on a different storage device to be available in the case of destruction of the original data.

Broadband

Call center

A group of individuals that handles telephone inquiries for an organization

Camera

A device for taking a photograph or video

Cashier

A cashier is a person who handles the cash register at various locations such as the point of sale in a retail store.

Customer

An individual or organization that purchases a product or service.

Database

Software for efficiently storing large amounts of data.

DCS

A distributed control system (DCS) is a control system for a process or plant, where elements are distributed throughout the system.

Desktop

A personal computer that generally isn’t portable.

Developer

An individual that develops hadware, software, etc.

DHCP

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a standardized network protocol used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks for dynamically distributing network configuration parameters, such as IP addresses for interfaces and services.

Directory

A file system artifact for storing a collection of other file system artifacts, including other directories

Disk drive

A device used to store data on a disk medium

Disk media

DNS

Domain name system (DNS) is a collection of names of a computer hardware and/or software artifacts on a computer network

Documents

End-user

Executive

File

A file system artifact for storing data in a particular format

Finance

Firewall

A network security system that limits access to trusted traffic

Flash drive

A solid state data storage device that does not contain any moving parts.

Former employee

An individual who was previously employee by an organization

Gas terminal

An internet enabled gasoline dispencing device.

Guard

An individual who secures a particular device or location

Helpdesk

A resource for users of a product to troubleshoot problems

HSM

A hardware security model (HSM) is a device that securely stores a digital cryptographic key.

Human resources

A department in an organization that performs personnel management.

IDS

An intrusion detection system (IDS) is a device or software application that monitors network or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations and produces reports to a management station

Kiosk

LAN

A local area network (LAN)

Laptop

A portable personal computer.

Log

A digital recording of the activity of a device or process

Mail

Mainframe

Maintenance

Manager

Media

An object used to store and deliver data

Mobile phone

A portable telephone that communicates over a cellular network

Network

A collection of devices that are connected either physically or virtually

Partner

Payment card

Payment switch

PBX

A private branch exchange (PBX) is a telephone switching system local to an organization

PED pad

Peripheral

A device, which usually not logically or physically part of the main device, but connected physically or virtually.

Person

PLC

A programmable logic controller (PLC) is a digital device used to control an electomechanical device.

POS controller

POS terminal

Print

Private WAN

Proxy

Public WAN

Remote access

Router or switch

RTU

Remote Terminal Unit (RTU)

SAN

SCADA

Server

Smart card

Tablet

A portable personal computer without a hardware keyboard

Tapes

A data media that uses spools of magnetic tape

Telephone

Unknown

An unknown asset

User Device

VoIP adapter

VoIP phone

A telephone that communicates over voice internet protocol (VoIP)

Web application

A software application running on a server, which is accessed over the internet using a browser.

WLAN

Wireless local area network (WLAN)

3.2 AttackerInfrastructureTypeVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The AttackerInfrastructureTypeVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the type of infrastructure an attacker uses. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Anonymization

Anonymization - Proxy

Anonymization - TOR Network

Anonymization - VPN

Communications

Communications - Blogs

Communications - Forums

Communications - Internet Relay Chat

Communications - Micro-Blogs

Communications –

Mobile Communications

Communications - Social Networks

Communications –

User-Generated Content Websites

Domain Registration

Domain Registration –

Dynamic DNS Services

Domain Registration –

Legitimate Domain Registration Services

Domain Registration –

Malicious Domain Registrars

Domain Registration –

Top-Level Domain Registrars

Electronic Payment Methods

Hosting

Hosting - Bulletproof / Rogue Hosting

Hosting - Cloud Hosting

Hosting - Compromised Server

Hosting - Fast Flux Botnet Hosting

Hosting - Legitimate Hosting

3.3 AttackerToolTypeVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The AttackerInfrastructureTypeVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the type of tools an attacker uses. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Application Scanner

Malware

Software designed to be used to attack or gain access to a computer system

Password Cracking

The process of using a software application to recover a plain text password from its encrypted representation

Penetration Testing

The process of investigating a computer system to find security weaknesses.

Port Scanner

A software application that reports on the status of the ports available on a host computer

Traffic Scanner

A software application that monitors data transferred on a network

Vulnerability Scanner

A type of software application used to discover vulnerabilities on a host, a network, or in a software product.

3.4 AvailabilityLossTypeVocab-1.1.1 Enumeration

The AvailabilityLossTypeVocab class is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the type of loss to availability that occurred as part of an incident. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Destruction

The information was destroyed or wiped.

Loss

Availability to the information was lost.

Interruption

Availability to the information was interrupted.

Degradation

Availability to the information was degraded.

Acceleration

Availability loss type is acceleration.

Obscuration

Availability to the information is obscured.

Unknown

Nature of availability loss is not known.

3.5 AvailabilityLossTypeVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The AvailabilityLossTypeVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the type of loss to availability that occurred as part of an incident. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below. NOTE: As of STIX Version 1.1.1, AvailabilityLossTypeVocab-1.0 is deprecated. Please use version 1.1.1 instead (see section 3.4).

Enumeration Literal

Description

Destruction

The information was destroyed or wiped.

Loss

Availability to the information was lost.

Interruption

Availability to the information was interrupted.

Degredation[2]

Availability to the information was degraded.

Acceleration

Availability loss type is acceleration.

Obscuration

Availability to the information is obscured.

Unknown

Nature of availability loss is not known.

3.6 CampaignStatusVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The CampaignStatusVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the status of a campaign. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Ongoing

This campaign is currently taking place.

Historic

This campaign occurred in the past and is currently not taking place.

Future

This campaign is expected to take place in the future.

3.7 COAStageVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The COAStageVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the stages of the threat management lifecycle to which a COA is applicable. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Remedy

This COA is applicable to the "Remedy" stage of the threat management lifecycle, meaning it may be applied proactively to prevent future threats.

Response

This COA is applicable to the "Response" stage of the threat management lifecycle, meaning it may be applied as a reaction to an ongoing threat.

3.8 CourseOfActionTypeVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The CourseOfActionTypeVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing types of courses of action. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Diplomatic Actions

Engaging in communications and relationship building with threat actors to influence positive changes in behavior.

Eradication

Identifying, locating, and eliminating malware from the network.

Hardening

Securing a system by reducing its attack surface by removing unnecessary software, usernames or logins, and services.

Internal Blocking

Host-based blocking of traffic from an internal compromised source.

Logical Access Restrictions

Activities associated with restricting logical access to computing resources.

Monitoring

Setting up network or host-based sensors to detect the presence of a threat.

Other

Other actions not covered in this list.

Patching

A specific form of hardening, patching involves applying a code fix directly to the software with the vulnerability.

Perimeter Blocking

Perimeter-based blocking of traffic from a compromised source.

Physical Access Restrictions

Activities associated with restricting physical access to computing resources.

Policy Actions

Modifications to policy that reduce the attack surface or infection vectors of malware.

Public Disclosure

Informing the public of the existence and characteristics of the threat or threat actor to influence positive change in adversary behavior.

Rebuilding

Re-installing a computing resource from a known safe source in order to ensure that the malware is no longer present on the previously compromised resource.

Redirection

Re-routing of suspicious or known malicious traffic away from the intended target to an area where the threat can be more safely observed and analyzed.

Redirection (Honey Pot)

Setting up a decoy parallel network that is intended to attract adversaries to the honey pot and away from the real network assets.

Training

Training users and administrators how to identify and mitigate threats.

3.9 DiscoveryMethodVocab-2.0 Enumeration

The DiscoveryMethodVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing how an incident was discovered. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Agent Disclosure

The incident was disclosed by the threat agent (e.g. public brag, private blackmail).

External - Fraud Detection

The incident was discovered through external fraud detection means.

Monitoring Service

The incident was reported by a managed security event monitoring service.

Law Enforcement

The incident was reported by law enforcement.

Customer

The incident was reported by a customer or partner affected by the incident.

Unrelated Party

The incident was reported by an unrelated third party.

Audit

The incident was discovered during an external security audit or scan.

Antivirus

The incident was discovered by an antivirus system.

Incident Response

The incident was discovered in the course of investigating a separate incident.

Financial Audit

The incident was discovered in the course of a financial audit and/or reconciliation process.

Fraud Detection

The incident was discovered through internal fraud detection means.

HIPS

The incident was discovered a host-based IDS or file integrity monitoring.

Internal - Fraud Detection

The incident was discovered through internal fraud detection means.

IT Audit

The incident was discovered by an internal IT audit or scan.

Log Review

The incident was discovered during a log review process or by a SIEM.

NIDS

The incident was discovered by a network-based intrustion detection/prevention system (NIDS).

Security Alarm

The incident was discovered by a physical security alarm.

User

The incident was reported by a user.

Unknown

It is not known how this incident was discovered.

3.10 DiscoveryMethodVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The DiscoveryMethodVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing how an incident was discovered. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below. NOTE: As of STIX Version 1.2, DiscoveryMethodVocab-1.0 is deprecated. Please use version 2.0 instead (see Section 3.9)

Enumeration Literal

Description

Agent Disclosure

The incident was disclosed by the threat agent (e.g. public brag, private blackmail).

Fraud Detection

The incident was discovered through external fraud detection means.

Monitoring Service

The incident was reported by a managed security event monitoring service.

Law Enforcement

The incident was reported by law enforcement.

Customer

The incident was reported by a customer or partner affected by the incident.

Unrelated Party

The incident was reported by an unrelated third party.

Audit

The incident was discovered during an external security audit or scan.

Antivirus

The incident was discovered by an antivirus system.

Incident Response

The incident was discovered in the course of investigating a separate incident.

Financial Audit

The incident was discovered in the course of a financial audit and/or reconciliation process.

Fraud Detection

The incident was discovered through internal fraud detection means.

HIPS

The incident was discovered a host-based IDS or file integrity monitoring.

IT Audit

The incident was discovered by an internal IT audit or scan.

Log Review

The incident was discovered during a log review process or by a SIEM.

NIDS

The incident was discovered by a network-based intrustion detection/prevention system (NIDS).

Security Alarm

The incident was discovered by a physical security alarm.

User

The incident was reported by a user.

Unknown

It is not known how this incident was discovered.

3.11 HighMediumLowVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The HighMediumLowVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing basic values that may be high, medium, low, none, or unknown. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

High

Medium

Low

None

Unknown

3.12 ImpactQualificationVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The ImpactQualificationVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the subjective level of impact of an incident. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Insignificant

The impact is insignificant because it is absorbed by normal activities.

Distracting

There are limited “hard costs,” but the impact is felt through having to deal with the incident rather than conducting normal duties.

Painful

Real, somewhat serious effect on the "bottom line".

Damaging

Real and serious effect on the “bottom line” and/or long-term ability to generate revenue.

Catastrophic

A business-ending event.

Unknown

The impact qualification is unknown.

3.13 ImpactRatingVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The ImpactRatingVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the level of impact due to an incident. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

None

There was no impact.

Minor

There was a minor impact.

Moderate

There was a moderate impact.

Major

There was a major impact.

Unknown

The impact is not known.

3.14 IncidentCategoryVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The IncidentCategoryVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing possible categories of an incident. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Denial of Service

An attack that successfully prevents or impairs the normal authorized functionality of networks, systems or applications by exhausting resources.

Exercise/Network Defense Testing

This category is used during state, federal, national, international exercises and approved activity testing of internal/external network defenses or responses.

Improper Usage

A person violates acceptable computing use policies.

Investigation

Unconfirmed incidents that are potentially malicious or anomalous activity deemed by the reporting entity to warrant further review.

Malicious Code

Installation of malicious software (e.g., virus, worm, Trojan horse, or other code-based malicious entity) that infects an operating system or application. Agencies are NOT required to report malicious logic that has been successfully quarantined by antivirus (AV) software.

Scans/Probes/Attempted Access

This category includes any activity that seeks to access or identify a federal agency computer, open ports, protocols, service, or any combination for later exploit. This activity does not directly result in a compromise or denial of service.

Unauthorized Access

In this category an individual gains logical or physical access without permission to a federal agency network, system, application, data, or other resource.

3.15 IncidentEffectVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The IncidentEffectVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the possible effects of an incident. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Brand or Image Degradation

The image or brand of the target related to the incident is damaged.

Data Breach or Compromise

The incident involved obtained or altered data.

Degradation of Service

The incident involved reducing the level of service of the target.

Destruction

The incident involved the destruction of a software or hardware system.

Disruption of Service / Operations

The incident involved terminating the service or operations of the target

Financial Loss

The incident involved a financial loss by the target

Loss of Competitive Advantage

The incident involved a non-specified loss of competitive advantage

Loss of Competitive Advantage - Economic

The incident involved an economic loss of competitive advantage

Loss of Competitive Advantage - Military

The incident involved a military loss of competitive advantage

Loss of Competitive Advantage - Political

The incident involved a political loss of competitive advantage

Loss of Confidential /

Proprietary Information or Intellectual Property

During the incident proprietary information or intellectual property (IP) was obtained

Regulatory, Compliance or Legal Impact

The incident caused some violation of law, regulation, etc.

Unintended Access

User Data Loss

During the incident, user data was obtained

3.16 IncidentStatusVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The IncidentStatusVocab-1.0 enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the possible status of the incident. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

New

Open

The incident is being investigated

Stalled

The investigation of the incident is open but progress is not being made.

Containment Achieved

Any negative impacts of the incident have been mitigated

Restoration Achieved

Any services or operations that were degradated or distrupted have been restored

Incident Reported

Closed

The incident is no longer under investigation

Rejected

The incident was determined to be invalid

Deleted

The incident was marked as “deleted”.

3.17 IndicatorTypeVocab-1.1 Enumeration

The IndicatorTypeVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing indicator types. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Malicious E-mail

The indicator describes suspected malicious e-mail (phishing, spear phishing, infected, etc.).

IP Watchlist

The indicator describes a set of suspected malicious IP addresses or IP blocks.

File Hash Watchlist

The indicator describes a set of hashes for suspected malicious files.

Domain Watchlist

The indicator describes a set of suspected malicious domains.

URL Watchlist

The indicator describes a set of suspected malicious URLs.

Malware Artifacts

The indicator describes the effects of suspected malware.

C2

The indicator describes suspected command and control activity or static indications.

Anonymization

The indicator describes suspected anonymization techniques (Proxy, TOR, VPN, etc.).

Exfiltration

The indicator describes suspected exfiltration techniques or behavior.

Host Characteristics

The indicator describes suspected malicious host characteristics.

Compromised PKI Certificate

The indicator describes a compromised PKI Certificate.

Login Name

The indicator describes a compromised Login Name.

IMEI Watchlist

The indicator describes a watchlist for IMEI (International Mobile Station Equipment Identity handset identifiers).

IMSI Watchlist

The indicator describes a watchlist for IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity SIM card identifiers_.

3.18 IndicatorTypeVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The IndicatorTypeVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing indicator types. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below. NOTE: As of STIX Version 1.1.1 IndicatorTypeVocab-1.0 is deprecated. Please use version 1.1 instead (see section 3.17).

Enumeration Literal

Description

Malicious E-mail

The indicator describes suspected malicious e-mail (phishing, spear phishing, infected, etc.).

IP Watchlist

The indicator describes a set of suspected malicious IP addresses or IP blocks.

File Hash Watchlist

The indicator describes a set of hashes for suspected malicious files.

Domain Watchlist

The indicator describes a set of suspected malicious domains.

URL Watchlist

The indicator describes a set of suspected malicious URLS.

Malware Artifacts

The indicator describes the effects of suspected malware.

C2

The indicator describes suspected command and control activity or static indications.

Anonymization

The indicator describes suspected anonymization techniques (Proxy, TOR, VPN, etc.).

Exfiltration

The indicator describes suspected exfiltration techniques or behavior.

Host Characteristics

The indicator describes suspected malicious host characteristics.

3.19 InformationSourceRoleVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The InformationSourceRoleVocab-1.0 enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the role played by a given entity in the sourcing of the information. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Initial Author

A party acting as the initial author/creator of a set of information.

Content Enhancer/Refiner

A party that enhances or refines a preexisting set of information.

Aggregator

A party that aggregates multiple different sets of information into one new set of information.

Transformer/Translator

A party that transforms or translates a preexisting set of information into a different representation (e.g., translating an unstructured prose threat analysis report into STIX).

3.20 InformationTypeVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The InformationTypeVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing types of information. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Information Assets

Non-specific information

Information Assets - Corporate Employee Information

Data related to an employee, such as salary

Information Assets - Customer PII

Data related to a customer, such as their SSN

Information Assets - Email Lists / Archives

Email addresses collected by an organization

Information Assets - Financial Data

Information such as credit card numbers, bank accounts, etc.

Information Assets - Intellectual Property

Information Assets - Mobile Phone Contacts

Information related to associates from a cell phone.

Information Assets - User Credentials

Username and/or passwords

Authentication Cookies

A small piece of data, usually stored to remember that a user has authenticated on a computer system.

3.21 IntendedEffectVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The IntendedEffectVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing possible intended effects of a malicious actor or activity. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Account Takeover

The intended effect of the incident was for the attacker to obtain control over an account (financial, etc)

Advantage

The intended effect of the incident was for the attacker to obtain some advantage over the target

Advantage - Economic

The intended effect of the incident was for the attacker to obtain some economic advantage over the target

Advantage - Military

The intended effect of the incident was for the attacker to obtain some military advantage over the target

Advantage - Political

The intended effect of the incident was for the attacker to obtain some political advantage over the target

Brand Damage

The intended effect of the incident was for the attacker to cause some brand damage on the target

Competitive Advantage

The intended effect of the incident was for the attacker to obtain some non-specific competitive advantage over the target

Degradation of Service

The intended effect of the incident was reducing the level of services provided by the target

Denial and Deception

Destruction

The intended effect of the incident was to cause the destruction of a software or hardware system.

Disruption

Embarrassment

The intended effect of the incident was to expose a socially unacceptable action by the target

Exposure

Extortion

The intended effect of the incident was force the payment of some sort to prevent the attacker from taking some action.

Fraud

Harassment

The intended effect of the incident was to pressure or intimidate the target

ICS Control

Theft

The intended effect of the incident was to perpetrate a non-specific theft

Theft - Credential Theft

The intended effect of the incident was to perpetrate a theft of credentials

Theft - Identity Theft

The intended effect of the incident was to perpetrate a theft of the target’s identity

Theft - Intellectual Property

The intended effect of the incident was to perpetrate a theft of intellectual property

Theft - Theft of Proprietary Information

The intended effect of the incident was to perpetrate a theft of proprietary information

Traffic Diversion

Unauthorized Access

3.22 LocationClassVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The LocationClassVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the subjective location of an asset.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Internally-Located

The asset is located internally.

Externally-Located

The asset is located externally.

Co-Located

The asset is co-located.

Mobile

The asset is mobile.

Unknown

The asset location is unknown.

3.23 LossDurationVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The LossDurationVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the approximate length of time of a loss as part of an incident. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Permanent

The loss is permanent.

Weeks

The loss lasted for weeks.

Days

The loss lasted for days.

Hours

The loss lasted for hours.

Minutes

The loss lasted for minutes.

Seconds

The loss lasted for seconds.

Unknown

The loss duration is not known.

3.24 LossPropertyVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The LossPropertyVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the possible security properties affected as part of a loss in an incident.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Accountability

Availability

The availability of a computer system has been compromised

Confidentiality

Data can be obtained by an unauthorized user

Integrity

Data produced by a computer system is unreliable

Non-Repudiation

3.25 MalwareTypeVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The MalwareTypeVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing types of malware. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Automated Transfer Scripts

Adware

Any software that is funded by advertising. Adware may also gather sensitive user information from a system.

Dialer

A program to automatically dial a telephone

Bot

A program that resides on an infected system, communicating with and forming part of a botnet. The bot may be implanted by a worm or trojan, which opens a backdoor. The bot then monitors the backdoor for further instructions.

Bot - Credential Theft

A bot for the specific purpose to steal credentials

Bot - DDoS

A bot for the specific purpose to

Bot - Loader

Bot - Spam

A bot for the specific purpose to send out spam email

DoS / DDoS

DoS / DDoS - Participatory

DoS / DDoS - Script

DoS / DDoS - Stress Test Tools

Exploit Kits

A software toolkit to target common vulnerabilties

POS / ATM Malware

Malware that exclusively targets point of sale (POS) systems or automatic teller machines (ATMs)

Ransomware

A type of malware that encrypts files on a victim's system, demanding payment of ransom in return for the access codes required to unlock files.

Remote Access Trojan

A remote access trojan program or RAT, is a trojan horse capable of controlling a machine through commands issue by a remote attacker.

Rogue Antivirus

A fake security product that demands money to clean phony infections.

Rootkit

A method of hiding files or processes from normal methods of monitoring, and is often used by malware to conceal its presence and activities. Rootkits can operate at a number of levels, from the application level - simply replacing or adjusting the settings of system software to prevent the display of certain information - through hooking certain functions or inserting modules or drivers into the operating system kernel, to the deeper level of firmware or virtualization rook kits, which are activated before the operating system and thus even harder to detect while the system is running.

3.26 ManagementClassVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The ManagementClassVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the subjective type of management of an asset. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Internally-Managed

The asset is managed internally.

Externally-Management

The asset is managed externally.

Co-Management

The asset is co-managed.

Unknown

The asset management class is unknown.

3.27 MotivationVocab-1.1 Enumeration

The MotivationVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the motivation of a threat actor. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Ideological

The threat actor is motivated by non-specific ideological reasons.

Ideological - Anti-Corruption

The threat actor is motivated to attack targets engaging in corruption.

Ideological - Anti-Establishment

The threat actor is motivated to attack established authority

Ideological - Environmental

The threat actor is motivated to attack targets engaging in actions determental to the environment.

Ideological - Ethnic / Nationalist

The threat actor is motivated to attack targets engaging in actions either against or in favor of a nation state or ethnic group

Ideological - Information Freedom

The threat actor is motivated by the belief in the freedom of information.

Ideological - Religious

The threat actor is motivated to attack targets associated with a religion.

Ideological - Security Awareness

Ideological - Human Rights

The threat actor is motivated to attack targets engaging in actions either in favor or against human rights.

Ego

The threat actor is motivated by enhancing their own self worth.

Financial or Economic

The threat actor is motivated by financial gain.

Military

The threat actor is motivated by the desire to exercise some military advantage.

Opportunistic

The threat actor is motivated by the relative vulnerability of the target

Political

The threat actor is motivated by the desire to exercise some political advantage.

3.28 MotivationVocab-1.0.1 Enumeration

The MotivationVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the motivation of a threat actor. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below. NOTE: As of STIX Version 1.1, MotivationVocab-1.0.1 is deprecated. Please use version 1.1 instead (see Section 3.27).

Enumeration Literal

Description

Ideological

The threat actor is motivated by non-specific ideological reasons.

Ideological - Anti-Corruption

The threat actor is motivated to attack targets engaging in corruption.

Ideological - Anti-Establishment

The threat actor is motivated to attack established authority

Ideological - Environmental

The threat actor is motivated to attack targets engaging in actions determental to the environment.

Ideological - Ethnic / Nationalist

The threat actor is motivated to attack targets engaging in actions either against or in favor of a nation state or ethnic group

Ideological - Information Freedom

The threat actor is motivated by the belief in the freedom of information.

Ideological - Religious

The threat actor is motivated to attack targets associated with a religion.

Ideological - Security Awareness

Ideological - Human Rights

The threat actor is motivated to attack targets engaging in actions either in favor or against human rights.

Ego

The threat actor is motivated by enhancing their own self worth.

Financial or Economic

The threat actor is motivated by financial gain.

Military

The threat actor is motivated by the desire to exercise some military advantage.

Opportunistic

The threat actor is motivated by the relative vulnerability of the target

Policital[3]

The threat actor is motivated by the desire to exercise some political advantage.

 

3.29 MotivationVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The MotivationVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the motivation of a threat actor. NOTE: As of STIX Version 1.0.1, MotivationVocab-1.0 is deprecated. Please use version 1.1 instead (see Section 3.27).

Enumeration Literal

Description

Ideological

The threat actor is motivated by non-specific ideological reasons.

Ideological - Anti-Corruption

The threat actor is motivated to attack targets engaging in corruption.

Ideological - Anti-Establisment[4]

The threat actor is motivated to attack established authority

Ideological - Environmental

The threat actor is motivated to attack targets engaging in actions determental to the environment.

Ideological - Ethnic / Nationalist

The threat actor is motivated to attack targets engaging in actions either against or in favor of a nation state or ethnic group

Ideological - Information Freedom

The threat actor is motivated by the belief in the freedom of information.

Ideological - Religious

The threat actor is motivated to attack targets associated with a religion.

Ideological - Security Awareness

Ideological - Human Rights

The threat actor is motivated to attack targets engaging in actions either in favor or against human rights.

Ego

The threat actor is motivated by enhancing their own self worth.

Financial or Economic

The threat actor is motivated by financial gain.

Military

The threat actor is motivated by the desire to exercise some military advantage.

Opportunistic

The threat actor is motivated by the relative vulnerability of the target

Policital[5]

The threat actor is motivated by the desire to exercise some political advantage.

3.30 OwnershipClassVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The OwnershipClassVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the subjective type of ownership of an asset. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Internally-Owned

The asset is owned internally.

Employee-Owned

The asset is owned by an employee.

Partner-Owned

The asset is owned by a partner.

Customer-Owned

The asset is owned by a customer.

Unknown

The asset ownership class is unknown.

3.31 PackageIntentVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The PackageIntentVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for the grouping intent of a set of STIX content. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Collective Threat Intelligence

The package is intended to convey a broad characterization of a threat across multiple facets.

Threat Report

The package is intended to convey a broad characterization of a threat across multiple facets expressed as a cohesive report.

Indicators

The package is intended to convey mainly indicators.

Indicators - Phishing

The package is intended to convey mainly phishing indicators.

Indicators - Watchlist

The package is intended to convey mainly network watchlist indicators.

Indicators - Malware Artifacts

The package is intended to convey mainly malware artifact indicators.

Indicators - Network Activity

The package is intended to convey mainly network activity indicators.

Indicators - Endpoint Characteristics

The package is intended to convey mainly endpoint characteristics (hashes, registry values, installed software, known vulnerabilities, etc.) indicators.

Campaign Characterization

The package is intended to convey mainly a characterization of one or more campaigns.

Threat Actor Characterization

The package is intended to convey mainly a characterization of one or more threat actors.

Exploit Characterization

The package is intended to convey mainly a characterization of one or more exploits.

Attack Pattern Characterization

The package is intended to convey mainly a characterization of one or more attack patterns.

Malware Characterization

The package is intended to convey mainly a characterization of one or more malware instances.

TTP - Infrastructure

The package is intended to convey mainly a characterization of attacker infrastructure.

TTP - Tools

The package is intended to convey mainly a characterization of attacker tools.

Courses of Action

The package is intended to convey mainly a set of courses of action.

Incident

The package is intended to convey mainly information about one or more incidents.

Observations

The package is intended to convey mainly information about instantial observations (cyber observables).

Observations - Email

The package is intended to convey mainly information about instantial email observations (email cyber observables).

Malware Samples

The package is intended to convey a set of malware samples.

3.32 PlanningAndOperationalSupportVocab-1.0.1 Enumeration

The PlanningAndOperationalSupportVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the planning and operational support functions available to a threat actor. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Data Exploitation

Data Exploitation - Analytic Support

Data Exploitation - Translation Support

Financial Resources

Financial Resources - Academic

Financial Resources - Commercial

Financial Resources - Government

Financial Resources - Hacktivist or Grassroot

Financial Resources - Non-Attributable Finance

Planning

Planning - Open-Source Intelligence (OSINT) Gathering

Planning - Operational Cover Plan

Planning - Pre-Operational Surveillance and Reconnaissance

Planning - Target Selection

Skill Development / Recruitment

Skill Development / Recruitment - Contracting and Hiring

Skill Development / Recruitment - Document Exploitation (DOCEX) Training

Skill Development / Recruitment - Internal Training

Skill Development / Recruitment - Military Programs

Skill Development / Recruitment - Security / Hacker Conferences

Skill Development / Recruitment - Underground Forums

Skill Development / Recruitment - University Programs

3.33 PlanningAndOperationalSupportVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The PlanningAndOperationalSupportVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the planning and operational support functions available to a threat actor. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.NOTE: As of STIX Version 1.0.1, PlanningAndOperationalSupportVocab-1.0 is deprecated. Please use version 1.0.1 instead (see Section 3.32).

Enumeration Literal

Description

Data Exploitation

Data Exploitation - Analytic Support

Data Exploitation - Translation Support

Financial Resources

Financial Resources - Academic

Financial Resources - Commercial

Financial Resources - Government

Financial Resources - Hacktivist or Grassroot

Financial Resources - Non-Attributable Finance

Planning

Planning - Open-Source Intelligence (OSINT) Gethering[6]

Planning - Operational Cover Plan

Planning - Pre-Operational Surveillance and Reconnaissance

Planning - Target Selection

Skill Development / Recruitment

Skill Development / Recruitment - Contracting and Hiring

Skill Development / Recruitment –

Document Exploitation (DOCEX) Training

Skill Development / Recruitment - Internal Training

Skill Development / Recruitment - Military Programs

Skill Development / Recruitment - Security / Hacker Conferences

Skill Development / Recruitment - Underground Forums

Skill Development / Recruitment - University Programs

3.34 ReportIntentVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The ReportIntentVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for the grouping intent of a STIX Report content. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Collective Threat Intelligence

The report is intended to convey a broad characterization of a threat across multiple facets.

Threat Report

The report is intended to convey a broad characterization of a threat across multiple facets expressed as a cohesive report.

Indicators

The report is intended to convey mainly indicators.

Indicators - Phishing

The report is intended to convey mainly phishing indicators.

Indicators - Watchlist

The report is intended to convey mainly network watchlist indicators.

Indicators - Malware Artifacts

The report is intended to convey mainly malware artifact indicators.

Indicators - Network Activity

The report is intended to convey mainly network activity indicators.

Indicators - Endpoint Characteristics

The report is intended to convey mainly endpoint characteristics (hashes, registry values, installed software, known vulnerabilities, etc.) indicators.

Campaign Characterization

The report is intended to convey mainly a characterization of one or more campaigns.

Threat Actor Characterization

The report is intended to convey mainly a characterization of one or more threat actors.

Exploit Characterization

The report is intended to convey mainly a characterization of one or more exploits.

Attack Pattern Characterization

The report is intended to convey mainly a characterization of one or more attack patterns.

Malware Characterization

The report is intended to convey mainly a characterization of one or more malware instances.

TTP - Infrastructure

The report is intended to convey mainly a characterization of attacker infrastructure.

TTP - Tools

The report is intended to convey mainly a characterization of attacker tools.

Courses of Action

The report is intended to convey mainly a set of courses of action.

Incident

The report is intended to convey mainly information about one or more incidents.

Observations

The report is intended to convey mainly information about instantial observations (cyber observables).

Observations - Email

The report is intended to convey mainly information about instantial email observations (email cyber observables).

Malware Samples

The report is intended to convey a set of malware samples.

3.35 SecurityCompromiseVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The SecurityCompromiseVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing whether or not an incident resulted in a security compromise. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Yes

It has been confirmed that this incident resulted in a security compromise.

Suspected

It is suspected that this incident resulted in a security compromise.

No

It has been confirmed that this incident did not result in a security compromise.

Unknown

It is not known whether this incident resulted in a security compromise.

3.36 SystemTypeVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The SystemTypeVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the type of a system. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Enterprise Systems

Enterprise Systems - Application Layer

Enterprise Systems - Database Layer

Enterprise Systems –

Enterprise Technologies and Support Infrastructure

Enterprise Systems - Network Systems

Enterprise Systems - Networking Devices

Enterprise Systems - Web Layer

Enterprise Systems - VoIP

Industrial Control Systems

Industrial Control Systems –

Equipment Under Control

Industrial Control Systems –

Operations Management

Industrial Control Systems –

Safety, Protection and Local Control

Industrial Control Systems - Supervisory Control

Mobile Systems

Mobile Systems - Mobile Operating Systems

Mobile Systems - Near Field Communications

Mobile Systems - Mobile Devices

Third-Party Services

Third-Party Services - Application Stores

Third-Party Services - Cloud Services

Third-Party Services - Security Vendors

Third-Party Services - Social Media

Third-Party Services - Software Update

Users

Users - Application And Software

Users - Workstation

Users - Removable Media

3.37 ThreatActorSophisticationVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The ThreatActorSophisticationVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the subjective level of sophistication of a threat actor. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Innovator

Demonstrates sophisticated capability. An innovator has the ability to create and script unique programs and codes targeting virtually any form of technology. At this level, this actor has a deep knowledge of networks, operating systems, programming languages, firmware, and infrastructure topologies and will demonstrate operational security when conducting his activities. Innovators are largely responsible for the discovery of 0-day vulnerabilities and the development of new attack techniques.

Expert

Demonstrates advanced capability. An actor possessing expert capability has the ability to modify existing programs or codes but does not have the capability to script sophisticated programs from scratch. The expert has a working knowledge of networks, operating systems, and possibly even defensive techniques and will typically exhibit some operational security.

Practitioner

Has a demonstrated, albeit low, capability. A practitioner possesses low sophistication capability. He does not have the ability to identify or exploit known vulnerabilities without the use of automated tools. He is proficient in the basic uses of publicly available hacking tools, but is unable to write or alter such programs on his own.

Novice

Demonstrates a nascent capability. A novice has basic computer skills and likely requires the assistance of a Practitioner or higher to engage in hacking activity. He uses existing and frequently well known and easy-to-find techniques and programs or scripts to search for and exploit weaknesses in other computers on the Internet and lacks the ability to conduct his own reconnaissance and targeting research.

3.38 ThreatActorTypeVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The ThreatActorTypeVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for expressing the subjective type of a threat actor. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

Enumeration Literal

Description

Cyber Espionage Operations

Hacker

Hacker - White hat

Hacker - Gray hat

Hacker - Black hat

Hacktivist

State Actor / Agency

eCrime Actor - Credential Theft Botnet Operator

eCrime Actor - Credential Theft Botnet Service

eCrime Actor - Malware Developer

eCrime Actor - Money Laundering Network

eCrime Actor - Organized Crime Actor

eCrime Actor - Spam Service

eCrime Actor - Traffic Service

eCrime Actor - Underground Call Service

Insider Threat

Disgruntled Customer / User

3.39 VersioningVocab-1.0 Enumeration

The VersioningVocab enumeration is used to define the default STIX vocabulary for specifying the relationship between versions of STIX content. The associated enumeration literals are provided in the table below.

 

Enumeration Literal

Description

Updates - Revises

The new content represents a modified or expanded form of the previous content with existing information refined for improved quality or confidence.

Updates - Corrects

The new content represents a modified form of the previous content with corrections to errors in the existing information. The previous content should be considered invalid and the new content should be used in its place.

Revokes

The previous content is asserted to be invalid and should not be considered for operational purposes.

 

4      Conformance

Implementations have discretion over which parts (components, properties, extensions, controlled vocabularies, etc.) of STIX they implement (e.g., Indicator/Suggested_COAs).

[1] Conformant implementations must conform to all normative structural specifications of the UML model or additional normative statements within this document that apply to the portions of STIX they implement (e.g., Implementers of the entire TTP component must conform to all normative structural specifications of the UML model or additional normative statements within this document regarding the TTP component).

[2] Conformant implementations are free to ignore normative structural specifications of the UML model or additional normative statements within this document that do not apply to the portions of STIX they implement (e.g., Non-implementers of any particular properties of the TTP component are free to ignore all normative structural specifications of the UML model or additional normative statements within this document regarding those properties of the TTP component).

The conformance section of this document is intentionally broad and attempts to reiterate what already exists in this document. The STIX 1.2 Specifications, which this specification is based on, did not have a conformance section. Instead, the STIX 1.2 Specifications relied on normative statements and the non-mandatory implementation of STIX profiles. STIX 1.2.1 represents a minimal change from STIX 1.2, and in that spirit no requirements have been added, modified, or removed by this section.

 

 


Appendix A. Suggested Default Vocabularies

This appendix shows the correspondence between properties in the STIX data model and the suggested default vocabularies which are described in the previous section.  As discussed in Section 2, there are many different options when using vocabulary terms in STIX.  Default vocabularies should be used whenever possible to ensure the greatest level of compatibility between STIX users.

 

Enumeration

Package Prefix

Class

Properties

AssetTypeVocab-1.0

incident

AffectedAssetType

Type

AttackerInfrastructureTypeVocab-1.0

ttp

InfrastructureType

Type

AttackerToolTypeVocab-1.0

stixCommon

ToolInformationType

Type

AvailabilityLossTypeVocab-1.1.1(1.0)

incident

PropertyAffectedType

Type_Of_Availability_Loss

CampaignStatusVocab-1.0

campaign

CampaignType

Status

COAStageVocab-1.0

coa

CourseOfActionType

Stage

CourseOfActionTypeVocab-1.0

coa

CourseOfActionType

Type

DiscoveryMethodVocab-2.0 (1.0)

incident

IncidentType

incident:Discovery_Method

HighMediumLowVocab-1.0

stixCommon

StatementType

Value

ImpactQualificationVocab-1.0

incident

ImpactAssessmentType

Impact_Qualification

ImpactRatingVocab-1.0

incident

DirectImpactSummaryType

Asset_Losses

Business-Mission_Disruption

Response_And_Recovery_Costs

IncidentCategoryVocab-1.0

incident

CatgoriesType

Category

IncidentEffectVocab-1.0

incident

IncidentType

Effect

IncidentStatusVocab-1.0

incident

IncidentType

Status

IndicatorTypeVocab-1.1 (1.0)

indicator

IndicatorType

Type

InformationSourceRoleVocab-1.0

stixCommon

InformationSourceType

Role

InformationTypeVocab-1.0

ttp

VictimTargetingType

Targeted_Information

IntendedEffectVocab-1.0

incident

IncidentType

Intended_Effect/stixCommon:Value

LocationClassVocab-1.0

incident

AffectedAssetType

Location_Class

LossDurationVocab-1.0

incident

PropertyAffectedType

Duration_Of_Availability_Loss

LossPropertyVocab-1.0

incident

PropertyAffectedType

Property

MalwareTypeVocab-1.0

ttp

MalwareInstanceType

Type

ManagementClassVocab-1.0

incident

AffectedAssetType

Management_Class

MotivationVocab-1.1. (1.0.1, 1.0)

ta

ThreatActorType

Motivation/stixCommon:Value

OwnershipClassVocab-1.0

incident

AffectedAssetType

Ownership_Class

PackageIntentVocab-1.0

stix

STIXHeaderType

Package_Intent

PlanningAndOperationalSupportVocab-1.0.1 (1.0)

ta

ThreatActorType

 

Planning_And_Operational_Support/stixCommon:Value

ReportIntentVocab-1.0

report

ReportHeaderType

Intent

SecurityCompromiseVocab-1.0

incident

ImpactAssessmentType

 

 

 

IncidentType

Loss_Of_Competitive_Advantage

Brand_And_Market_Damage

Increased_Operating_Costs

Legal_And_Regulatory_Costs

Security_Compromise

SystemTypeVocab-1.0

ttp

VictimTargetingType

Targeted_Systems

ThreatActorSophisticationVocab-1.0

ta

ThreatActorType

Sophistication/stixCommon:Value

ThreatActorTypeVocab-1.0

ta

ThreatActorType

Type/stixCommon:Value

VersioningVocab-1.0

stixCommon

GenericRelationshipType

Relationship


Appendix B. Acknowledgments

The following individuals have participated in the creation of this specification and are gratefully acknowledged:

Participants:

Dean Thompson, Australia and New Zealand Banking Group (ANZ Bank)

Bret Jordan, Blue Coat Systems, Inc.

Adnan Baykal, Center for Internet Security (CIS)

Jyoti Verma, Cisco Systems

Liron Schiff, Comilion (mobile) Ltd.

Jane Ginn, Cyber Threat Intelligence Network, Inc. (CTIN)

Richard Struse, DHS Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C)

Marlon Taylor, DHS Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C)

David Eilken, Financial Services Information Sharing and Analysis Center (FS-ISAC)

Sarah Brown, Fox-IT

Ryusuke Masuoka, Fujitsu Limited

Eric Burger, Georgetown University

Jason Keirstead, IBM

Paul Martini, iboss, Inc.

Jerome Athias, Individual

Terry MacDonald, Individual

Alex Pinto, Individual

Patrick Maroney, Integrated Networking Technologies, Inc.

Wouter Bolsterlee, Intelworks BV

Joep Gommers, Intelworks BV

Sergey Polzunov, Intelworks BV

Rutger Prins, Intelworks BV

Andrei SĒrghi, Intelworks BV

Raymon van der Velde, Intelworks BV

Jonathan Baker, MITRE Corporation

Sean Barnum, MITRE Corporation

Desiree Beck, MITRE Corporation

Mark Davidson, MITRE Corporation

Ivan Kirillov, MITRE Corporation

Jon Salwen, MITRE Corporation

John Wunder, MITRE Corporation

Mike Boyle, National Security Agency

Jessica Fitzgerald-McKay, National Security Agency

Takahiro Kakumaru, NEC Corporation

John-Mark Gurney, New Context Services, Inc.

Christian Hunt, New Context Services, Inc.

Daniel Riedel, New Context Services, Inc.

Andrew Storms, New Context Services, Inc.

John Tolbert, Queralt, Inc.

Igor Baikalov, Securonix

Bernd Grobauer, Siemens AG

Jonathan Bush, Soltra

Aharon Chernin, Soltra

Trey Darley, Soltra

Paul Dion, Soltra

Ali Khan, Soltra

Natalie Suarez, Soltra

Cedric LeRoux, Splunk Inc.

Brian Luger, Splunk Inc.

Crystal Hayes, The Boeing Company

Brad Butts, U.S. Bank

Mona Magathan, U.S. Bank

Adam Cooper, United Kingdom Cabinet Office

Mike McLellan, United Kingdom Cabinet Office

Chris O'Brien, United Kingdom Cabinet Office

Julian White, United Kingdom Cabinet Office

Anthony Rutkowski, Yaana Technologies, LLC

 

The authors would also like to thank the larger STIX Community for its input and help in reviewing this document.

Appendix C. Revision History

Revision

Date

Editor

Changes Made

wd01

21 August 2015

Sean Barnum Desiree Beck Aharon Chernin Rich Piazza

Initial transfer to OASIS template

 

 



[1] The CybOX Observable data model is actually defined in the CybOX Language, not in STIX.

[2] Corrected in AvailabilityLossTypeVocab-1.1.1.

[3] Corrected in MotivationVocab-1.1.

[4] Corrected in MotivationVocab-1.0.1.

[5] Corrected in MotivationVocab-1.1.

[6] Corrected in PlanningAndOperationalSupportVocab-1.0.1.