Maps organize topics into hierarchies, tables, and groups, and have special elements for referencing other maps.
topicref elements are the basic elements of a map. A topicref can point to a DITA topic, map, or to any other resource that can be processed or linked to. They can also have a title, short description, and the same kinds of prolog-level metadata available in topics.
topicref elements can be nested to create a hierarchy, which can be used to define print output, online navigation, and parent/child links. The topichead element can be used for nodes in the hierarchy that provide containers without equivalent topics: they are equivalent to topicref elements with a navtitle but no href or equivalent referencing attribute.
Relationship tables are defined with the reltable element. Relationship tables can be used to define relationships among the topics in different cells of the same row. In a relationship table, the columns define common attributes or metadata for the topics in that column. The rows define relationships, with each cell representing a different role in the relationship. For example, a table with different columns for concepts, tasks, and reference topics could be used to define the relationship between a task and the topics that support it.
Both hierarchies and tables can be annotated using the collection-type attribute to define sets of siblings that are part of a particular kind of collection, for example a set of choices, a sequence, or a family. These collection-types can affect link generation, and may be interpreted differently for different outputs.
Groups or collections outside of a hierarchy or table can be defined with the topicgroup element, which is equivalent to a topicref with no referencing attributes or titles. Groups can be combined with hierarchies and tables, for example by including a group within a table cell or within a set of siblings in a hierarchy.
Most elements in the map, including the map itself, can contain metadata, which typically applies to the element and its descendants, as described in Inheritance of attributes and metadata in maps.
<map> <reltable> <relheader> <relcolspec type="concept"/> <relcolspec type="task"/> <relcolspec type="reference"/> </relheader> <relrow> <relcell> <topicref href="A.dita"/> </relcell> <relcell> <topicref href="B.dita"/> </relcell> <relcell> <topicref href="C1.dita"/> <topicref href="C2.dita"/> </relcell> </relrow> </reltable> </map>
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OASIS DITA Version 1.1 Architectural Specification -- OASIS Standard, 1 August 2007
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