The dir attribute

While most languages are written in text where characters flow from left to right, Hebrew and many Arabic languages are written from right to left. In some languages, including Hebrew and Arabic, numbers and other content is written left to right. Also, a multilingual document containing, for example, English and Hebrew, contains some text that flows left to right and other text that flows right to left.

Text directionality is controlled by the following:
  1. Directionality explicitly set on the root element (via the dir attribute) or, when not set, assumed by the processing application.
  2. dir="ltr|rtl" attribute on an element that overrides the inherited direction. The specified direction overrides the Unicode bidirectional algorithm only on neutral Unicode characters (e.g. spaces and punctuation) in the element's content. The "ltr" and "rtl" values do not override the strongly bidirectional characters.
  3. dir="lro|rlo" attribute on an element. The specified direction overrides the Unicode bidirectional algorithm on all Unicode characters in the element's content.

In most cases, authors need to use dir="rtl|ltr" to ensure punctuation surrounding a RTL phrase inside a LTR element is rendered correctly. In order to override the direction of strongly typed Unicode characters (most characters that apply to a language except for punctuation, spaces and digits), the author would need to use dir="lro|rlo". The use of the dir attribute and the Unicode algorithm is clearly explained in the article Specifying the direction of text and tables: the dir attribute ( . The referenced article has several examples on the use of dir="rtl|ltr". There is no example on the use of dir="lro|rlo", though it can be inferred from the example using the bdo element (the old W3C way of overriding the entire Unicode bidirectional algorithm; the now favored method uses the override values on the dir attribute).

From the HTML 4.0 spec:
The dir attribute specifies the directionality of text: left-to-right (dir="ltr", the default) or right-to-left (dir="rtl"). Characters in Unicode are assigned a directionality, left-to-right or right-to-left, to allow the text to be rendered properly. For example, while English characters are presented left-to-right, Hebrew characters are presented right-to-left. Unicode defines a bidirectional algorithm that must be applied whenever a document contains right-to-left characters. While this algorithm usually gives the proper presentation, some situations leave directionally neutral text and require the dir attribute to specify the base directionality. Text is often directionally neutral when there are multiple embeddings of content with a different directionality. For example, an English sentence that contains a Hebrew phrase that contains an English quotation would require the dir attribute to define the directionality of the Hebrew phrase. The Hebrew phrase, including the English quotation, would be contained within a ph element with dir="rtl".

Recommended usage

The Unicode Bidirectional algorithm provides for various levels of bidirectionality, as follows:
  1. Directionality is either explicitly specified via the dir attribute on the highest level element (topic or derived peer for topics, map for ditamaps) or assumed by the processing application. It is recommended to specify the dir attribute on the highest level element in the topic or document element of the map.
  2. When embedding a RTL text run inside a LTR text run (or vice-verse), the default direction often provides incorrect results, especially if the embedded text run includes punctuation that is located at one end of the embedded text run. Unicode defines spaces and punctuation as having neutral directionality, and defines directionality for these neutral characters when they appear between characters having a strong directionality (most characters that are not spaces or punctuation). While the default direction is often sufficient to determine the correct directionality of the language, sometimes it renders the characters incorrectly (for example, a question mark at the end of a Hebrew question may appear at the beginning of the question instead of at the end). To control this behavior, the dir attribute is set to "ltr" or "rtl" as needed, to ensure that the desired direction is applied to the characters that have neutral bidirectionality. The "ltr|rtl" values override only the neutral characters, not all Unicode characters.
  3. Sometimes you may want to override the default directionality for strongly bidirectional characters. This is done using the "lro" and "rlo" values, which overrides the Unicode directionality algorithm. This essentially forces a direction on the contents of the element. These override attributes give the author a brute force way of setting the directionality independently of the Unicode BIDI algorithm. The gentler "ltr|rtl" values have a less radical effect, only effecting punctuation and other so-called neutral characters.

For most authoring needs, the "ltr" and "rtl" values are sufficient. Only when the desired effect cannot be achieved using these values, should the override values be used.

While the Unicode standard includes hidden markers for directionality without the need for markup, these markers should not be used. It is strongly recommended to mark up the document using the dir attribute to set directionality. Using markup instead of the Unicode markers has the following advantages:
  • The document will be as portable as possible.
  • The document can be processed by applications that do not fully implement the Unicode BIDI algorithm.
  • The marked-up document can be read and understood by humans.
  • When updating the document, the boundaries of each text flow are clear, which makes it much easier for the author to update the document.

Implementation precautions

Users should be aware that descriptive markup isn’t necessarily the end of their work. Each possible output rendition or display tool may have different requirements for managing bidirectional text. Just as different HTML browsers offer different levels of support for CSS, different output tools implement the bidirectional algorithm, and its accompanying directional controls, differently. For example, HTML displayed in Internet Explorer may have different requirements than HTML displayed in Firefox. Similarly, a control that works in one part of an HTML file, such as the body of the page, might not work in another, such as the title or the index in compiled HTML Help. The same uncertainty can be found in almost any output. PostScript or PDF rendering tools treat bidirectional text differently. Microsoft Word and OpenOffice Writer don’t handle bidirectional RTF in the same way. Flash has little concern for directional markup of any kind, but does format strings according to the Unicode algorithm.

Because input is unpredictably dependent on eventual output, it is not sufficient to apply the “dir” attribute in such a way as to make the XML appear as it should in an editor. Additional care must be taken to make sure that markup is correctly transformed (or added to the source XML, if needed), with respect both to the target output format and the target output tool. To use the case of HTML, this could mean creating output tailored to the capabilities of the most common likely browser or creating output tailored to the least capable browser and ensuring the markup functions for the most likely and capable one. For example, bidirectional HTML that displays perfectly in Internet Explorer might not display correctly in Safari. However, if the HTML displays perfectly in Safari, chances are very good it will display correctly in Internet Explorer as well. This isn’t a certainty, however. Each case should be tested and confirmed by qualified individuals.

Applications that process DITA documents, whether at the authoring, translation, publishing, or any other stage, should fully support the Unicode algorithm to correctly implement the script and directionality for each language used in the document. The recommended practice is to write all directionality markers via XML markup and not to use the Unicode Bidirectional markers. When reading XML markup that embeds the Unicode Bidirectional markers, these markers should be replaced with markup when the document is saved.

Applications should ensure every highest level topic element and the root map element explicitly assign the dir attribute.

Related information
What you need to know about the bidi algorithm and inline markup (
XHTML Bi-directional Text Attribute Module (
Specifying the direction of text and tables: the dir attribute (
HTML 4.0 Common Attributes (

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OASIS DITA Version 1.1 Architectural Specification -- OASIS Standard, 1 August 2007
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